Web-Mapping can be defined as a procedure by which maps are designed, implemented, generated and delivered on the World Wide Web. The World Wide Web started in the mid 90 ‘s and so changed the manner maps were being created, published and used ( Kraak, 2001 ) .it has since be used to print maps on the World Wide, ( Cartwright, 1999 ) . In this present twenty-four hours, 1000000s of map is now being accessed through the web, ( Peterson, 2003 ) .
Categorization OF WEB- MAPPING
In 2001, Kraak made the first categorization of Web Maps. He classified them into inactive and dynamic maps and farther distinguished them into position merely and synergistic maps. He subsequently realised that all maps could non be fit into a individual categorization, so he decided to sort them based on how sophisticated they are, the following are the types of Web Maps based on their edification.
MacEachren, 1994 ab initio categorized web maps based on a map usage position, so in 1997, MacEachren and Kraak broadened it into four map usage ends ; to research, analyse, synthesize and nowadays.
COLLABORATIVE WEB MAPS
This is the concluding class of web maps classified by Kraak. They are maps created and maintained by a web of people, and these maps could besides be edited. Some illustrations of collaborative undertaking maps include OpenStreetMap and WikiMapia.
ANALYTIC WEB MAPS
These web maps are normally used by GIS professionals to analyze maps. There are two major analytical maps provided by these web maps: the path finder where the user specifies a starting and stoping reference and the map waiter analyzes the best path by walking, public conveyance or auto. It besides gets the best and shortest path, an illustration is the Google maps. The other map is observing the Centre map of a peculiar state whereby acquiring the information about that state such as the location, dirt, geologic and land usage profiles.
INTERACTIVE WEB MAPS
These are web maps that have the ability to toggle on map beds, browse to web sites linked with map characteristics, bring forth personalized maps, and look into informations forms utilizing tools linked to the map, an illustration is MapQuest which is used to happen street references and driving waies.
PERSONALISED WEB MAPS
Kraak referred to these web maps as site maps that permit users to hold some part into the expression of a map. These parts include title bars, fable, scale saloon and other map elements that one needs when making a map in GIS.
REALTIME WEB MAPS
In these web maps the most normally viewed maps are the conditions maps. The aggregation of informations needed for this type of maps are mechanized through detectors such as those installed on route webs to observe vehicle traffic.
ANIMATED WEB MAPS
These are web maps that lay accent on the being of an incidence in a location, the property of an incidence or the alteration in place. An illustration is a conditions map demoing altering conditions forms.
DISTRIBUTED WEB MAPS
This was Kraak ‘s 3rd class of web maps. These are maps created from distributed informations beginning. It involves the usage of informations sharing like Web Map Services ( WMS ) , Web Feature Services ( WFS ) or Web Coverage Services ( WCS ) .
DYNAMIC WEB MAPS
These are maps created on demand each clip a user reloads the web page from a dynamic informations beginning such as datasets. They are similar to synergistic maps.
STATIC WEB MAPS
These are position merely maps with no interaction. They are created manually or digitally and are seldom updated, their graduated table or any characteristic on the map can ne’er be changed by the user, all that can be done on it is merely rapid climb in or out.
WEB MAPPING TECHNOLOGIES
Web maps have been usage for a great figure of intents which includes traffic and conveyance ( Emmer, 2001 ; Mooney & A ; Winstanley, 2003 ) , atlas publication and development ( Richard, 1999 ; Kraak, 2001 ) and besides travel and touristry ( Brown, 2001 ) . Jim Detwiler & A ; John Dutton, 2009 grouped the major engineerings involved in web function into four classs viz. ;
- Open beginning
- Public APIs
The commercial engineering includes ;
- ArcGIS Server ( ESRI )
- GeoMedia WebMap ( Intergraph )
- MapXtreme ( MapInfo )
- MapGuide ( Autodesk )
ARCGIS SERVER AND ITS APPLICATIONS
With ArcGIS Server, map sharing and applications across the web is easy for organisations. ArcGIS Server can be used to geographically enable IT investings, manage geodata, extend GIS engineering to mobile work force, publish undertaking and innate web maps. It supports a broad scope of applications like ArcGIS online, ArcGIS for Mobile, ArcGIS Desktop, ArcGIS for AutoCAD and ArcGIS Explorer. It could be used by GIS professionals, database decision makers, application developers, IT administrators, information workers, nomadic workers and web citizens ; it delivers a centralised geographic intelligence to all its users. It comes in three editions which are the advanced, standard and the basic. The advanced supports all its key characteristics ; the standard supports most of the cardinal characteristics while the basic supports merely on cardinal characteristic ( ESRI, 2009 ) .
GEOMEDIA WEBMAP AND ITS APPLICATIONS
It is an Intergraph web-based map visual image and analysis merchandise. It can be used to analyze informations, make geospatial information available to people on the move, discover the power of GeoMedia WebMap professional web object to execute analysis, analyze informations with dynamic cleavage and execute real-time GIS analysis. Its application includes ; GeoMedia WebMap decision maker used administer GeoMedia WebMap on the Web waiter, GeoMedia WebMap Publisher used to make a geospatial Web site or Web Service, GeoMedia SMMS used to make and redact FGDC-compliant metadata and GeoConnect which is used to function FGDC-compliant metadata via the Web, ( Intergraph, 2004 ) .
MAPXTREME AND ITS APPLICATIONS
MapXtreme is a prevalent MapInfo Windowss based function waiter which enables companies to administer maps and critical concern information via the cyberspace and intranet. It is largely used by companies to recognize the value of informations visual image and function, to do informations determinations and manage assets and operations more effectual. MapXtreme comes with a complete application that the application developer would necessitate to map and run organisations on the intranet. It is cost effectual, has rapid application development and it is compatible with taking web waiters and web browsers, ( MapInfo, 2003 ) .
MAPGUIDE AND ITS APPLICATIONS
OPEN SOURCE TECHNOLOGY
This includes ;
- Scaleable Vector Graphics ( SVG )
- Adobe Flex ( really portion unfastened, portion proprietorship )
MAPSERVER AND ITS APPLICATIONS
It is an unfastened beginning web Mapper which is used to show active spacial maps over the cyberspace. MapServer applications consist of a map file ( .map extension ) , geographic informations ( ESRI shapefiles ) , HTML pages ( , MapServer CGI ( mapserv ) and HTTP waiter ( Apache or Microsoft Internet Information Server ) , [ MAPSERVER, 2009 ] .
GEOSERVER AND ITS APPLICATIONS
GeoServer is a Java-based package waiter that permits users to see and redact geospatial informations. It allows great lissomeness in map constitution and informations sharing. It Opens and Share Spatial Data, Use Free and Open Source Software and Integrates With Existing Mapping APIs.
SCALEABLE VECTOR GRAPHICS ( SVG ) AND ITS APPLICATIONS
It is a phase for planar artworks. It has two parts: an XML-based file format and a scheduling API for graphical applications. Its Key characteristics include forms, text and set in raster artworks, with many different picture manners. It supports scripting via linguistic communications such as ECMAScript and has full support for life. Its applications in industries include ; nomadic, print, web applications, embedded systems, design and interchange and GIS and function.
This includes ;
- Google Maps
- Yokel! Maps
- Microsoft Virtual Earth ( 2D )
- MapQuest ‘s OpenAPI
This includes ;
- Google Earth
- Microsoft Virtual Earth ( 3D )
- ArcGIS Explorer
- NASA WorldWind
All these engineerings have its ain advantages and disadvantages that should be put into consideration when be aftering a function site.The commercial engineering provides the easiest agencies of integrating analytic maps into an application with good proficient support. The disadvantage of these engineerings is that they can be really expensive.
The most apparent advantage of the open-source engineerings is that they are free. Their disadvantage is that their proficient support is non every bit good and the sites frequently lack a “ professional ” expression and feel.
The advantage of the public APIs are that they are free and the API supplier supplies a set of base beds whose symbology and declaration alteration rationally as the map ‘s graduated table is changed. The base bed can besides be a disadvantage if you do n’t wish them or they do n’t run into your demands. Extra disadvantage of the public APIs are that they are non good suited to demo big datasets ( peculiarly line and polygon informations ) and there is the likeliness that the supplier could make up one’s mind to environ your map with ads.
Finally, the Earth engineerings add practicality and a “ belly laugh ” factor that is non present in the 2-D engineerings. Their disadvantage is that they require the installing of either a separate application or a browser circuit board to be viewed, unlike the 2-D maps that are viewable in standard web browsers.