(TB) is a prominent public health disease affecting the lives of millions of
people worldwide. Tuberculosis is a bacterial sickness spread by coughing,
sneezing, whistling and laughing of an infected individual via air channel. Bacterial
species of Mycobacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) are
the main infectious species of tuberculosis. Those people who have low socio-economic
status are highly susceptible to TB disease. Public healthcare employees as well as supporters also have high risk, particularly respiratory therapists
and pulmonologist. Proper identification and treatment is required for TB avoidance,
transfer and death reduction. (Kafeel et al., 2017). Mycobacterium
tuberculosis (MTB) is an obligate bacterium and depend on its host organism for
multiplication and spread (Eileen et al., 2017). MTB has infected humans from
ages. This can be understood by structural authentication through human being
fossils, the existence of Mycobacterial DNA in human debris and rigorously
illustration of this bacterial disease indicate everywhere in human history
(Hershkovitz et al., 2008).
Health Organization (WHO) reports that more than 10.4 million people were influenced
through TB in 2015 while 1.4 million people died as well (Mohsin et al., 2017).
It is also believed that about 2 billion people worldwide carry the inactive
form of TB disease. MTB is enclosed by alveolar macrophages, after it gets
entry into host human via respiratory duct, dendritic cells, neutrophils or epithelial
cells. To promote surviving bacterium into the cells, it adopts different
strategies; the most important one is the secretion of protein such as Mpt64,
the 6-kDa early secreted antigenic target (ESAT6), the 10-kDa culture ?ltrate
protein (CFP10), and the antigen 85 (Ag85) complex which has a prominent role
in the virulence of MTB. The Ag85 complex is the main secretory antigen, and it
has an important role in the pathogenicity of MTB. Patients having active
pulmonary TB are prominent sources of infection, and they continuously
contaminate the air with the bacterium. Reliable and sophisticatd
identification approach is essential to inhibit the spread of the disease.
Different experiments have been performed for the detection of secreted
proteins of MTB as immuno-dominant and early markers for TB disease. Detection
methods for mycobacterium genus include culturing, microscopy smear, enzyme
linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immune
based methods which are very helpful for the identification of secreted MTB
antigens. Some laboratories use Lowenstein Jensen medium (LJ) that is an egg
based medium for the identification of MTB. Although the conventional growth
media is time taking because the rate of growth is very slow.
(TB) still stays one of the major mycobacterial ailment in developing nations.
Pakistan is the number 6th in Tuberculosis (TB) Infection load,
according to World Health Organization (WHO) the incidence rate is 181 infected
cases per 100,000 individuals (Zahra Hassan et al., 2006).
Geographically Pakistan has border with four developing countries, all have TB
in endemic form. Furthermore in a supportive way, it is also attaches with
South Asian Countries which have also TB in highly epidemic form. Both
Identification and treatment are notable difficulties; it is determined 4/5
patients in Pakistan remain without medical care (Zahra Hassan et al.,
is all due to illiteracy, lack of awareness, unavailability of reliable diagnostic
method and lack of treatment availability.
research has been design for evaluation of diagnostic methods available for the
rural and urban areas in Pakistan. In order to propose a strategy for suitable
and reliable method of detection.
Our main objectives of the above mentioned study
different diagnostic methods used for identification and treatment of the
recommendation of proper diagnostic technique of Mycobacterial Tuberculosis.
awareness by Guiding and motivating people about Public health protection for
the major infective MTB disease.