Three degree GIS informations Security: Conjointly Cryptography and Digital Watermarking
Abstraction–Geographic Information System ( GIS ) plays a critical function in Military operations as they are basically spacial in nature. All military operations demands for control, coordination and communicating of information and commands. This demands for truth of information needed to take speedy determinations for operational orders being given by governments. In the present digital epoch, GIS is an first-class tool for Military commanding officers to present their strategic programs and orders to intended officers. [ 5 ] The usage of GIS in military applications enforces to pull and deployment of security mechanisms to convey these confidential informations in more secured mode. Cryptography and watermarking techniques entirely is non capable to work out the intent. In our proposed system we will present a new mechanism to protect GIS informations transporting confidential and sensitive informations for military and army intent by combing two of the cryptanalysis algorithms Advanced Encryption Standard ( AES ) , Rivest Shamir and Adleman ( RSA ) with digital watermarking techniques. Our proposed system can be applied in both GIS vector and raster informations with commercial applications besides.
Index Footings – GIS, Cryptography, Digital Watermarking, AES, RSA.
Importance of GIS in military and commercial application has long been recognized by experts. The chief constituent of GIS is informations. The GIS information has two of import belongingss. First, the attempt it takes to set it in a signifier suitable for usage in the GIS applications. This attempt increases its cost. Second, in most instances the GIS Data contains confidential information which must be kept off from unauthorised users. Such confidential information includes GIS beds incorporating troop locations and extra information like motions and mines topographic points in a tactical environment. [ 1 ]
Two possible menaces for GIS informations are:
1. Illegal duplicate and distribution – Since GIS information is excessively sensitive and expensive, companies used to do transcripts of this information by buying some beds of GIS and subsequently sell them without taking any permission from original GIS information supplier.
2. Unauthorized Access – Unauthorized users entree and tamping bar informations before send oning it on web.
The proposed system, we will present in this paper is an effort to work out these security jobs in relation to GIS informations.
II. ORGANISATION OF PAPER
Paper is organized into seven subdivisions. Section III gives the debut of cryptanalysis and digital watermarking ; their applications and limitation.. In Section IV we discussed about security issues and menaces while utilizing GIS informations and the work that has been done on it in the past. We introduced and explained our proposed system in Section V. We used flow chart and image samples to explicate our algorithm in more elaborate and expressive mode. At last, we concluded our paper followed by its hereafter range.
III. PROS & A ; CORNS: CRYPTOGRAPHY AND DIGITAL WATERMARKING
Several engineerings have been used to manage security menaces including cryptanalysis, digital watermarking. Each of this engineering has its restrictions. Cryptography and Digital watermarking have been long used as a arm to work out security jobs related to informations transmitted over web. Both of these have applications and use with different aims. Cryptography tries to guarantee confidentiality, genuineness and unity while information is being transmitted over public web. Cryptanalysis is the method of encoding of original informations at sender side by utilizing cardinal and algorithm before being transmitted over Internet and do reverse of the same procedure at receiver side. Encoding is the procedure of change overing a clear and meaningful informations in an indecipherable and nonmeaningful signifier. Many algorithms like AES, RSA, Hashing etc. used for the same intent. Cryptography is used for the intent of sharing secured informations over insured web. The efficiency of cryptanalysis depends on cardinal direction and distribution non on the algorithm used and this is one of the biggest security menaces with cryptanalysis.
Digital Watermarking is the method of concealing a digital message in digital signal like an image, sound or picture signal itself. One of the most used applications of digital watermarking is proprietor designation. To place the proprietor of specific image or vocal, right of first publication information is embedded in the image or song itself. Other applications of digital watermarking include fiddling sensing, fingerprinting, broadcast monitoring etc. [ 4 ]
The major restriction of digital watermarking is the use of guiltless image including cropping, colour fluctuations, rotary motions, lossy compaction etc. Additionally, watermarking of GIS information is done by altering some of the characteristics of original image like colour, texture, pixel’s breadth etc. Besides, it can non protect The GIS informations and confidential information from entree by unauthorised users.
A more secured system could be built by associating digital watermarking with cryptanalysis. By this, security can be enhanced for broadcast medium of such a sensitive and confidential informations like GIS informations.
IV. RELATED WORK
Government Agencies has been used GIS engineering for many old ages. Earlier, GIS has been a engineering used by professionals to place menaces, program resource deployments, and map possible action and eventuality programs. Besides, for constructing information merchandises and printed paper maps desktop applications were widely used. However, presents, the GIS platform allow users to entree applications, information and easy to utilize maps that pillars a mission, 24X7 from anyplace and besides on any web [ 3 ] .The functionality and operations of defence forces has been uprised with the usage of GIS applications. Military forces use GIS in a assortment of applications including mapmaking, intelligence, conflict field direction, terrain analysis, remote detection, military installing direction and monitoring of possible terrorist activity. Most of the work that has been done in this country uses the construct of digital watermarking [ 6-7 ] . Watermarking is a procedure of obtaining a digital watermarked file by implanting concealed information ( watermarking form or water line for simpleness ) like right of first publication twine in a dataset without bring forthing perceptible alterations in the informations utilizing a suited watermarking algorithm. [ 1 ] .
V. PROPOSED SYSTEM
The proposed algorithm is designed with an aim to supply a method for unafraid communicating of confidential and sensitive information in the signifier of digital informations like images including maps, form files etc. along with copyright messages over a web. The proposed theoretical account employs digital watermarking with cryptanalysis holding two degrees of AES and one degree of RSA. Several techniques are used for digital H2O taging. Our proposed system uses least important spot implanting technique in which any spot of integer portion of the selected co-ordinates of image is extracted and used [ 2 ] . The sequence of stairss taken at transmitter and receiver side is shown as:
Fig.1: Stairss at Sender Side
The whole procedure of encoding and decoding base on ballss through three phases of encoding at sender side and decoding at receiver side. At first phase message which is to be sent by implanting it into an original image is encrypted utilizing 128-bit AES algorithm in parallel extraction of 3rd least important spots from original image co-ordinates so that a composing map can be applied over them. After using the composing map, we have composite image, Comp ( I ) , which is a combination of encrypted message, En ( tungsten ) , and extracted characteristics ( 3rd spots of co-ordinates ) , Ex ( degree Fahrenheit ) . In Second phase, original image wholly acquire encrypted utilizing 128-bit AES and combined with Comp ( I ) , which gives a complete merchandise, that work every bit envelop to keep both encrypted message ( water line ) , extracted characteristics and encrypted original message. At last, the complete merchandise will acquire encrypted utilizing RSA algorithm and public key is transmitted over the web for the user ( s ) .
Fig.2: Stairss at Receiver Side
Similarly, At receiver terminal Decryption procedure will be applied. First, the complete encrypted merchandise get decrypted utilizing RSA and so decomposed into two parts Comp ( I ) and En ( I ) ( selected spots of the co-ordinates ) . Now Comp ( I ) can be decomposed by using decomposition map, hence we get Ex ( degree Fahrenheit ) and En ( tungsten ) . En ( I ) , Encrypted image can be decrypted utilizing 128-bit AES and we get the original image. Now by comparing the extracted characteristic ( spots ) with characteristics of watermarked image En ( I ) ( 3rd spots of co-ordinates ) , we can easy judge whether the image being received is distorted or non.
Fig. 3: Original Vector Map [ 2 ]
Fig. 4: Original Watermark [ 2 ]
Fig. 5: Watermarked Map [ 2 ]
Under this research paper, we proposed a system that provides security at three degrees. If an interloper somehow able to decode the informations at any of these degree so it will be really hard to decode at all degrees. We have provided the security mix of symmetric and asymmetric cryptanalysis that increases the security every bit good as velocity of the system. The proposed system can be used in the applications where sensitive information is needed to be transferred.
VII. Future range
In this Research paper, we have merely proposed a system that could be implemented for supplying efficient security to the organisations, concerns, military, medical etc. Although the system provides security at three phases by utilizing symmetric every bit good as asymmetric algorithm nevertheless usage of other asymmetric algorithm for concluding phase could do system more quicker, efficient and accountable.
[ 1 ] . Yasser Dakroury, Ismail Abd EI-ghafar, Ashraf Tammam, “ProtectingGIS Data Using Cryptography and Digital watermarking”, International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security ( IJCSNS ) , Vol. 10, Iss. 1, January 2010.
[ 2 ] . Tawfiq A. Abbas, Majid J. Jawad,“Proposed an Intelligent watermarking in GIS Environment”Journal of earth secience Research ( JESR ) , Vol. 1, Iss. 1, PP. 1-5, May 2013.
[ 3 ] . White Paper,“GIS platform for national security”, July 2014. Available at hypertext transfer protocol: //www.esri.com/library/whitepapers/pdfs/gis-platform-for-national-security.pdf
[ 4 ] . Stephen Wolthusen“On the Limitations of Digital Watermarks: A Cautionary Note”. Available at hypertext transfer protocol: //www.wolthusen.com/publications/SCI1998.pdf
[ 5 ] . P. Satyanarayana, S. Yogendran,“Military Applications of GIS”, Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //geospatialworld.net/Paper/Technology/ArticleView.aspx? aid=908
[ 6 ] . Ingemar Cox, Matthew Miller, Jeffrey Bloom, Jessica Fridrich and Ton Kalker,“Digital Watermarking and Steganography” ,United statess: Morgan Kaufmann, Second Edition, November 2007.
[ 7 ] . Peter Wayner,“Disappearing Cryptanalysis: Information Concealment: Steganography & A ; Watermarking” ,United statess: Morgan Kaufmann, Third Edition, December 2008