This of training & development opportunities to

is the last chapter of the dissertation that provides recommendations based on
the research findings. Recommendation have been made firstly based on the
feedback made by the respondents then followed by what studies have shown to
work in situations where employees have an intention to leave.



Recommendations to enhance training and development

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As per the findings,
lack of training and development influences employees to leave the company. Therefore,
it is recommended for the management to enhance the effectiveness of their
training and development initiatives by providing adequate training and
development programmes. It is essential to design the content of the training
programme relevant to the skills and knowledge required to perform the tasks
and the training programmes should facilitate achieving the expectations of the
jobs. Moreover, it is also recommended for the management to facilitate the
career development of the employees through the training programmes. According
to the study it’s recommended that HMA to secure SMO retention through
providing training and development with a proper system and process.

The study recommends
that HMA can enhance SMO employee retention by encouraging transparency and
fairness in provision of training & development opportunities to their


It’s recommended to
concentrate on below areas and steps in providing training and development for
the sewing machine operators.

Skill level, skill
requirement and skill gap of each SMO should be analysed and identified. This
can be done through SMO wise skill matrix update through industrial engineering
(IE) department. After identifying those areas, Training developments should be
provided according to the each SMO’s competencies and capabilities. also based
on their interest. So, it is contributed for both employee and employer optimum

Multi skill training
must be provided based on the interest of SMO employees which will help to grow
as an organization and well as employee. this will encourage employer and
employee to see SMO’s value differently and get the full potential gain the
productivity and efficiency.


and Noe (2005) stated that training and development is the formal activities
designed by an organization to help its employees acquire the necessary skills
and knowledge to perform current or future jobs. Training and development
activities like job training, coaching, mentoring and counselling are important
activities for employees to get valuable support, knowledge, skills and
abilities (Mathis & Jackson, 2004). Therefore, training and development
plays an important factor in career satisfaction of an employee in their career
lives. Moreover, training provides employees with specific skills or helps to
correct deficiencies in their performances thus enhancing their retention.  

and Stag (2009) claimed that employers should allocate financial resources

skills and development, and employee performance, since employees who feel

and undervalued will often seek employment elsewhere. In addition,
post-training transfer supports should be implemented to build confidence for
the employee in the workplace. Salas and Stagl (2009) claimed that new
technology, assessment tools, and instructional

it is important to integrate stages of training by including instructional
learning, training in the use of new technologies, and post-training
development. Organizations should ensure employees know how to do their jobs
effectively with the most up-to-date training tools and resources. 

from one’s mistakes, in essence, is a critical part of training, and the
inability to learn from one’s mistake hinders training. Buckingham and Coffman
(2007) recommended that employers focus on their employee’s strengths. For
example, if one employee is better at one particular job than is another, a
manager should direct that employee toward pursing that area of the job. They
advise moving employees around in the company rather than dismissing them
altogether in order to find the right fit for an employee’s particular set of
skills. Training should be attuned to one’s proper placement, based on one’s
skill set, and the more skills an employee learns, as well as the more tasks an
employee undertakes, the more an employee should earn in compensation
(Buckingham & Coffman, 2007).

is also very important. Managers should execute training programs that allow
employees to take creative risks individually and attain goals as part of a
team (Latham, 2009).

to Latham (2009), the strength of a good training program is that it creates a
culture of value within an organization and it helps to build and belief ‘in
the company. For example, Disney actively teaches company values in their
training orientations, stressing safety, courtesy, and efficiency (Latham,
2009). Making an employee feel like a team player helps organizations become
more effective and efficient and fosters a sense of purpose in the employee.


Recommendations to enhance performance appraisal

In enhancing the
performance appraisal, it is recommended for the management to ensure the
equality and the fairness of the appraisal standards and outcomes. It is
important that the employees are communicated their performance targets clearly
and these targets should be decided in consultation with the supervisors.
Moreover, it is also significant to conduct performance evaluations and
appraisal within sufficient time interval either six months’ time or yearly.


study recommends that the duration taken to evaluate SMO’s performance should
be long enough to allow comprehensive assessment and the process.  evaluation should involve wide consultations
especially in setting performance targets. This will ensure that employees feel
that they are part of the objective driven team of the organization and they
tend to retain their work for longer periods. It’s contributed to gain the
productivity and efficiencies which will drive organization to a next level.

It’s recommended to
concentrate on below areas and steps in providing training and development for
the sewing machine operators.

HMA must make SMO’s
aware about the clarity of the performance targets.

SMO’s performance
must be periodically evaluated which is important factor for their retention.

Transparency has to
be there in the rating of performance

Performance result
should be considered as a main element for the SMO’s carrier growth


Results of
performance appraisal may facilitate organizational decisions in compensation
allocation, promotions, termination, transfers, recognition awards and training
opportunities that can influence an employee’s career satisfaction and
retention (Lau & Sholihin, 2005)



Recommendations to enhance welfare benefits


literature also points at the relationship between welfare benefits and
employee retention. According to Derek & Laura H (1998), employee welfare
is intended to make life worth living. The study found out that employees at HMA
dot not relate employee satisfaction to physical benefits such as recreational
facilities within the institution.

it’s recommended that HMA should work on the benefit where it is leading to
employee retention is achieved physically (health, safety, paid holidays, reduced
working hours etc.) and emotionally (improved mental health through provision
of counselling services, improved communication and general human relations at
the workplace. Welfare benefits found to have the most significant impact on
the SMOs’ turnover intention. Therefore, it is prudent for the management to
enhance welfare benefits by ensuing that employees are getting adequate medical
facilities, recreational facilities and educational facilities. Employees
should be encouraged and recognised by these facilities in order to enhance
their satisfaction. In addition, employees should also allocate leave
entitlements sufficient in order to promote work life balance. It’s recommended
that HMA should identify the needs of the SMO level employees and then provide
welfare benefits to match those needs considering motivational factors as well
as hygiene factors. Also, leadership and management team has to identify the needs
and wants of the younger generations and provide welfare benefits aligning to
those needs.


study recommends that HMA can improve SMO employee retention by providing
welfare benefits that meet the need of employees. For employees to understand the
usefulness of welfare benefits, HMA should provide the employees with
sufficient information that will enable them to appreciate the benefits and
enhance their loyalty to the organization.

Organization need to
focus highly on employee motivations and retention. It’s recommended to provide
staff house facility in proximity to manufacturing facility, providing flexible
working hours etc. Also, it’s recommended to provide counter benefits such as housing loan scheme,
educational facility for children’s, caring centre for child and adult
dependents of the SMO’s.  Those action will
be helped organization to convert demotivated employees in to Motivated.  It’s also recommended that organization must
develop performance driven culture so that employees will have the flexibility
to have work-life balance while maintaining satisfactory level in personal-professional
growth. This will help to keep the employee motivation as well as
organization’s reputation and architecture step ahead. Also, organization need
to focus on career development program for employees. So that it’s help
organization to get full potential of employees towards organization success.



Recommendations to enhance disciplinary procedure

Even though
disciplinary procedure does not have a significant impact over turnover
intention, it is also suggested for the management enhance the effectiveness of
the disciplinary actions. The management needs to pay attention towards the
transparent of the procedure and employees should be given opportunities to
appeal on disciplinary actions. It is important that employees are sufficiently
communicated the rules and regulations of the disciplinary actions.

The study recommends
that HMA should make disciplinary rules and regulations clear to their SMO
employees. Making sure those employees understand disciplinary

procedures enable
them to appreciate any disciplinary decision related to them. This

contributes to
understanding between employers and employees in the event of

disciplinary action
thus improving employee retention.       


Recommendations to enhance career growth

enhancing the career growth, management of the company may provide adequate
opportunities for the employees to growth their career within the company.
Employees should be promoted timely based on their performance, especial
achievements as well as their experience. Furthermore, management may alter the
remuneration with the promotions and the promotions should be equal and fair.

recommended that HMA should set a system and process with an action plans to
enhance employee retention and progress should be monitored and evaluated frequently
to keep long term sustainability in this Objectives.

of the reasons the employees gave for not intending to stay in the organisation
included a lack of growth opportunities. Following recommendation can be given
to make them stay.

Develop and implement job evaluation/ appraisal criteria.
This indicates that an appropriate performance management system needs to be
put into place. Provide clear career path for sewing machine operators not
only in their professional life. But also in the personal life as most of the
respondents were discouraged by the lack of progression/promotion opportunities
as well as personal life style.  Thus,
career development and personal life benefits also need to be clarified in
terms that all SMO’s can understand. SMO’s should be motivated through performance rewards and recognition
(i.e. praise good workers reward performance etc,). Pay employees market-related monetary benefitsImprovement of working conditions and develop personal
wellbeing life style for employees


Recommendations for further enhancement of overall findings

recommended that management and leadership specially in HRM Team has to
identify the needs and wants of the SMO’s life style and act on providing those
need and wants. Following actions are recommended.

6.7.1 Set clear objectives with clear vision and

For this the path goal theory can be used, which specifies
the leaders’ behaviour to fit with the environment and employees in order to
achieve goals of motivating, empowering and the employee to give a productive
member to the organization. (House,
Robert, 1974)

6.7.2 Improve learning and development

According to the Herzberg two factor theory the employees
need to be motivated through giving more recognition and provide more growth
and promotional opportunities. This is also needed to apply in HMA.

6.7.3 Improve satisfaction

As per the Maslow’s Hierarchy Theory all the employees’
final objective is to achieve self-actualization through gaining all other
needs as their priorities. Therefore, Leadership must be identified priorities
and the level of needs and wants of the SOM level employees in HMA and set a
system and process to act on those criteria.                                                                                                

Figure 6.7: Maslow’s Hierarchy Theory


6.7.4 Motivate through providing proper incentives

Incentives work as a factor of hygiene as well as
motivation. The proper level and procedure of incentive result to improve the
motivation of the employees to work towards the goal achievements and this will
lead to retain the workers in the current positions and company. 

6.7.5 Equity in rewards

Unfair distribution of rewards may lead to employee
dissatisfaction. As such the equity in reward distribution in terms of their
input and effort is important to handle the turnover problem face by the

6.7.6 Increasing Management Commitment

To remain committed,
Employee should feel that they are valued and recognized by management. In
addition, their internal motivation, which themselves can try to increase
applies. When Employees have set goals for themselves, and these are achieved,
the employees will be able to feel a sense of accomplishment. This in turn led
to increased levels of job satisfaction.


Other than the above, Leaders must be able in building
better relationships with SMO level employees and use Democratic Leadership
Style and the behavior of the leaders need to be a blend of task and
relationship oriented. Leaders need to change their leadership style based on
the situation and participative leadership can be applied with more employee
engagement to minimize SMO turnover intention.

As per the all above identified theories and practical use
of those theories, management and the leaders at HMA should consider on making
more efforts to retain their valuble direct labour – SMO’s.

recommended that management and leadership specially in HRM Team has to
consider on the motivation of the SMO’s and act on building motivation which is
currently identified as a weakness accordingly to the research finding. The
motivation level of the employees is depended on the perceptions, education
levels and their mindsets.  (Ronald & Sims, 2007).
When it comes to consider about the motivation, It’s recommended HMA to apply Herzberg’s
two factor theory to overcome existing negative result about the SMO turnover
intention. This theory identifies the factors that result to neither job
satisfaction nor dissatisfaction and the factors that motivate the people to
change their mindsets to work towards the company which will positively
influence for the SMO turnover intention.

Figure 6.8: Herzberg’s two factor theory


factors – these factors do not motivate the employees, but absent of them will
result to de-motivate them. (Eg: Pay, Company policies, Fringe benefits,
Working condition, Status, Interpersonal relations, Job security)

– these are the factors which give positive satisfaction to the employees.
These factors will motivate the employees to superior performance which can
also be called as satisfiers.  (Eg: Recognition,
Sense of achievement, Growth and promotional opportunities, Responsibility, Meaningfulness
of work)

Therefore, it’s
recommended that management and leadership Team must consider on the motivation
of the SMO’s and act on building motivation considering both hygiene and
motivation factors based on SMO level employee’s expectations. It is likely that employees will
not stay in their jobs due to the lack of support from managers (Mobley, 1977).
Many researchers are of the view that poor supervision is one of the leading
factors of employee turnover and, hence, it is vital for an organization to
coach its managers in order to improve their organizational and leadership skills
(Porter and Steers, 1973). It comes to appear that employees do not have to be
friends with their boss, but they need to have a good relationship with their respective
boss. However, one argument put forward by management experts is that boss
needs to provide direction and feedback, spend time in one-to-one meetings, and
work with them cooperatively.


It should be
emphasized the importance of strengthening the relationships between the
organization and the employees to make them feel comfortable to discuss their
work-related issues and concerns. From the organizational perspective, it would
also be highly beneficial if the employees are empowered and given
opportunities to voice their opinions and ideas on the current established
practices and to suggest new initiatives without sticking to the routine
process of the operations.

HMA as an organisation
must be developed strategies to make a unique selling preposition (USP) among HMA
SMO’s which will help to be employer of choice. 
This will help HMA to have competitive advantage (CA) and to be step
ahead with the competition of skill labour of SMO challenges in the apparel