This how data for the study will

This section
covers and elaborates research procedures to be applied in conducting out this
study. The selection of a research methodology and design is primarily founded
on the description of a research problem or the subject being tackled
(Creswell, 2009). It describes how the research questions and objectives raised
will be achieved. It also indicates how data for the study will be collected, analysed
and interpreted in order to achieve the research objectives that were stated.
This chapter therefore shall comprise of research design and methodology that
include study population, determination of sample size, sampling techniques,
data collection methods, data collection instruments, quality control, data
collection procedures, data analysis, measurement of variables, and ethical
considerations. Research design and methodology are two different things as
explained below.


 3.1 Research Design

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design is plan or a roadmap for conducting a scientific study by providing the
overall framework for collecting data and research sites in a view to provide
answers to research questions (Leedy, 1997). It is also a strategic framework
for actions that serves as a bridge between research questions and the
execution or implementation of the research strategy (Durrheim, 2004).
Research methodology on the other hand is described as theoretical and
systematic analysis of the method applied in a field of study. It can also be
defined as a theory of how an enquiry can proceed (Schwardt, 2007). It involves
using different ways and methods to solve a problem. Research design generally
involves the planning and designing the structure of the research approach and
data collection process whereas methodology deals with the actual data
collection methods or techniques (Bryman et al. 2011).    


 3.2 Research Approach

The study will use qualitative research method as the
study is of qualitative nature. Qualitative research method collects and
analyses data as the researcher seeks to interpret deeper meaning as he/she
tries to understand social life through development of theories and phenomenon
(Yin, 2003; Creswell, 2007). This method deploys measurable data to formulate
facts as well as other methods from natural sciences designed to ensure
objectivity, reliability and generalizability according to Vander Merwe (1996).
Data is gathered using unstructured and semi-structured research techniques and
transformed into non-numerical data using tools such as computer software and
applications that assist in understanding a phenomenon through the study of the
targeted population sample size (Yin, 2014). This method makes use of
standardized survey instruments aimed at collecting open-ended data (Creswell,
2007). Researcher remains to be the key instrument throughout the study
starting from data collection to analysis. Qualitative research produces more
of descriptive data that needs further interpretation using various systematic methods
for analysis of trends and themes (Yin, 2007;2014).




3.3.1 Area of study and study
Case study

The research
will be conducted as a qualitative case study since the issue being studied allows
the researchers to explore different individuals as well as organizations as
they seek to understand different phenomena within their context. It will be
considered essential to conduct in-depth considerations of the nature of the
case, historical background as well as political institutions or contextual
factors influencing the study (Yin, 2003). Research utilizing qualitative case
study including participatory methods can be used to provide insights into
energy projects including rooftop solar, since they assist in the acquisition
of first-hand data from the field and stakeholders involved (Cook et al.,
2005). Schwandt (2007, p.28) states that, in case study, the case itself is at
the centre stage of the study and not outside of the inquiry and the researcher
may be trying to unearth the correlation between a phenomenon and the context
in which it is happening (Gray, 2004). Case studies are instrumental in
broadening understanding of a particular problem, issue, or perceptions by
pursuing to generate knowledge of the particular in diverse settings in order
to make meaning of them (Skate, 1995). It is more relevant when answering
research questions ”why and how” seeking to explain some present
circumstances and whereby the researcher cannot manipulate the behaviour of
those involved in the study (Yin, 2014). Hence, qualitative case study will be
used to identify the factors affecting scaling up of roof mounted solar in
urban centres. Study area

Nairobi is
the capital and the largest city of the republic of Kenya. It was founded by
1890s by British colonialists. It hosts more than four million people. It
serves as hub of all economic activities in Kenya and larger parts of East
Africa. All sorts of industries and commercial buildings are located within
Nairobi and her outskirts. Many industries and commercial buildings as well as
institutions and residential sectors have opted to deploy rooftop solar PV to
offset high electricity bills and power blackouts experienced within Nairobi.
Some commercial buildings within the CBD can make use of their roofs for
electricity generation.


commercial industries targeted under study are located at the outskirts of
Nairobi city CBD mainly in industrial area where they rely so much on
electricity from thermal generation power plants. These industries consume more
electricity hence a need to look for alternative sources of cheap electricity.
Some have already embarked on Rooftop solar PV deployment within their premises
as they lack enough land space to deploy ground solar PV (MoE&P, 2014).
Moreover, many industries have warehouses and stores whose roofs if well
utilised can be integral in offsetting their electricity bills from
fossil-based fuels thus help in addressing energy crisis as well as Climate
change. Some maybe lacking awareness on the importance of using roof mounted
solar to generate their own electricity for use.


 3.3.2 Sample Size
and Sample Determination

companies under study will be selected through purposive. Purposive sampling is
used to sample cases or participants that are strategically important to
address research questions at hand and may be used after a pre-test
investigation has informed the right group for one’s study (Bryman, 2012; Berg,
2001). It involves identification and selecting participants that have
knowledge and experiences of the case under study. The participants ought to be
willing and available on top of having the ability to communicate in an
expressive and reflective manner for the study to be successful and accurate
(Creswell & Plano Clark, 2011). The assessment will cover key stakeholders
that are affected by solar rooftop including private developers, project
financiers, technicians, consumers as well as government agents dealing with
solar rooftop. More focus will be given to companies and institutions that have
already installed rooftop Solar as they understand the sector now well than
those planning to install in the future. Some companies have already expressed interest in roof
mounted solar technology and were chosen as potential pilots by the Kenya
Association of Manufacturers using economic and technical parameters such as
rooftop size availability, building structure, KVA demand and power cost
structure. Kenya Association of Manufacturers (KAM), has been assisting its
members to adhere to the Energy Management Regulations Act of 2012 by offering
subsidized energy audits. Based on these audits, various recommendations aimed
at reducing energy consumption are made. Some of these recommendations include
installation of solar PV systems. In its recent publication, Supporting
Economic Transformation, KAM has identified securing affordable, reliable and
sustainable energy as one of its policy priorities to promote industrialization
in Kenya. This policy priority aims to lower the cost of energy by removing all
levies on power costs and apply appropriate tariffs for industrial usage. Its
member database which has 726 members to date would make a good resource for
companies that would be interested to enter the Kenyan market. This is done in
line with the Energy Management Act of 2012 that provides guidelines on energy
efficiency and energy management practices.


 Data Collection Methods


has been used as vital means by researchers for engagement between the social
sciences, business, and the society concerning issues that matter to them and
the society in general (Rapley, 2001). Interviewing has been widely used in
qualitative research for it helps the researcher to obtain information from
participants using either structured, semi structured or unstructured questionnaires
depending on the knowledge the participants have on the study topic, their
willingness and time available for the researcher and the participants.  Interviews will be used to collect primary
data from the target population. The study will involve use of a structured and
semi-structured questionnaire for the study to be complete and successful
within the stipulated time schedule. Semi-structured
questionnaire will be mainly deployed as it clearly gives guidance on what to
be interviewed as well as allowing elaborations of information and
understanding that is key to the participants but may not have been considered
by the researcher (Jackson, 2011).



It is usually conducted if the researcher is required to
study issues that have been under existence for a certain period of time. This
will be used to collect secondary data from reports and documents that have
been documented from previous studies concerning the same for comparisons and
will be guided by a documentary review checklist. Documents from various energy
departments will be used as well as energy reports from the same and existing rooftop
solar PV plants in Kenya and globally.

observation and photography

This method is used when the researcher plans to
generate data by systematic description of events, activities and behaviors of
people in the area of study in the natural setting (Marshall and Rossman,
1989). It involves using either structured or unstructured observation. Structured observation is a systematic technique, which a
researcher employs to generate physical data from the behavior of individuals,
an environment or events that appear naturally from social settings (Bryman,
2012). Tangible evidence in qualitative research constitutes the foundation for
our capacity to build rational conclusions about things as they appear to us
through prolonged observation (Angrosino, 2007). In observation, researchers
can obtain data in a manner that may not necessarily be known to the
inhabitants, such as taking photographs and recordings that can be used as a
physical evidence to strengthen interpretive results from qualitative research
(Bernard, 2011). This method will be used to assess the challenges faced by
technicians when installing roof mounted solar as well as other factors such as
building designs that hinder scaling up of solar rooftop. This will aid in
comparison purposes with other primary sources of data that will be deployed.



Surveys will be used throughout the study as it can be
used across all the stakeholders to aid in collecting primary data. The method
of survey using a semi-structured questionnaire will be deemed appropriate
since part of the questionnaire offers all the stakeholders a choice to picking
the answers from a given set of alternatives provided while the other part of
the questionnaire allows them to qualify their responses independently (Amin,
2005). Different modes of survey will be including mixed modes depending on the
nature of the participants. This will involve use of mail, telephone and face
to face (personal interviews).