This collected from Williams (1986) there was

This essay will discuss the effect of media on aggression in children, the essay will describe varied types of aggression, theories and examples and evidence to support if there is a link between media and aggression. Another factor in this essay will be nature versus nurture and which theory is related to either side of the argument. Within Psychology they are types of aggression; person-oriented this can cause harm to another individual an example of this is displaying hostility. Instrumental this comes from some reward or possible outcome and can be achieved through coercion of others.  Another aggression is reactive which is shown often in retaliation to provocation and can be presented as hostile or aggressive in an environment situation. Lastly, sanctioned which is aggression on the scale of being legal or allowed due to being seen as justifiable an example of this is war.   Williams (1986) A study on the media effects on anti-social behavior in children. In this study 6-11-year-old children from an isolated society (Canada, where TV had previously been unavailable) were assessed over a 2-year period, on their levels of aggression after the introduction of TV. Teachers and peers gave ratings of aggression levels. Results showed that there was a significant increase in aggressive behaviour, regardless of sex and how much TV was watched, meaning the introduction of TV led to an increase in aggression.  In relation to the research method used in Williams (1986) study was a natural experiment, an independent variable is naturally occurring within the result and the experimenter is unable to manipulate the independent variable, furthermore the dependent variable within the research is measured and judged as the effect of an Independent variable. The results collected from Williams (1986) there was deemed an increase in aggressive behaviour within the two-year period of the study, this is insensitive to gender or the number of hours of TV consumed.  Weaknesses within the research collected from Williams (1986), the children knew they were being studied and so they may have shown demand characteristics or social desirability effects, therefore implying the children will show what the researchers are looking for within this study on aggression. Lack of control over extraneous variables making cause and effect relationships hard to establish. These studies tend to be “one-off” making it hard to generalize. Being unable to randomly allocate participants to conditions means sample bias may be an issue. Ethical issues such as lack of informed consent commonly arise, as deception is often required; debriefing, once the observation or experiment has ended is necessary.  There are many varied strengths within this study, these include natural setting, results will have high ecological validity. Demand characteristics could not be presented as high due to it being in a natural setting, participants less likely to adjust natural behaviour according to their interpretation of the purpose of the study as they might not know they’re even involved. However, in this study, demand characteristics could be a problem as the children knew they were involved. In addition, relating Williams (1986) to the nature vs nurture debate, it is a natural experiment, so supports the nature side. Results showed that the aggression levels of the children increased when they started to watch TV, this was a naturally occurring response.  In conclusion that are more factor to consider such as ethical issues they were introduced and exposed to potentially aggressive pictures over a 2-year period, which led to higher aggression levels. Even though the children knew about the experiment, they may have been failed to be informed about consent, and debriefing may have failed to arise. Overall the researchers suggest that the introduction of TV promoted to an increase in aggression amongst the target age of this research and can expand to the population.  In relation to reliability, it can be argued on both sides as it was measured over a 2-year period, but in consideration of the age group and not having a TV before can this contribute into having higher aggression within this population.  Bushman & Huesman (2006) This was an experimental test whether the results of the accumulated studies on media violence and aggressive behaviour are consistent with the theories that have evolved to explain the effects. They tested for the existence of both short-term and long-term effects for aggressive behaviour. In addition, they have tested the theory-driven hypothesis that short-term effects should be greater for adults and long-term effects should be greater for children. Participants were 18 years old or above. This supports the nurture debate   Research methods within this study was longitudinal, expanding on this the data that was collected was completed over a long period of times using varied methods even including 3rd parties. Other consideration to consider in the research was the environment which the researchers were unable to control therefore this can result in not being a representative of the original sample, therefore in relation to reliability being low in the study and also low validity and ecological validity as due to the study sample size it is unable to be generalized. Meta-analysis is used for this study which is a subset of systematic views; a method for systematically combining pertinent qualitative and quantitative study data from several selected studies to develop a single conclusion that has greater statistical power. In addition, the correlation study, this was looking at the link between media and the possibility of causing aggressive behavior, furthermore the limitation is not showing the cause or effect, due to this not being able to be controlled it is able to have an effect on the end results.  Laboratory Experiments- the independent variable can be manipulated by the researcher; the level of aggression is shown after viewing activity which is measured and compared. The situations that are simulated are not the same as real life. This also only measures the long-term effects which is why in this study longitudinal was also used. There are also ethical issues with exposing people to violence to encourage aggressive behaviour. Ethical issues to consider part of this study are that exposing people to violence even in a gaming form to see if they become violent is unethical