The subject of Theoretical Grammar Essay

1.
The topic of Theoretical Grammar. Different approaches to the analysis of l-ge phenomena. L. Incorporates the 3 component parts. These parts are the phonological system, the lexical system, the grammatical system. Merely the integrity of these 3 elements forms a l-ge. The phonological syst. determines the stuff ( phonetical ) visual aspect of its indicative units. The lexical syst. is the whole set of calling agencies of l-ge, that is, w-ds and word-groups. The gr. syst. is the whole set of regularities finding the combination of calling agencies in the formation of vocalizations. Traditionally, grammar is
determined as the syst. of regulations of changing of the word and the regulations and ordinances of their combine in the sent. That is why it is divided into 2 parts: morphology ( regulations of word & # 8217 ; s altering ) and syntax ( regulations of word uniting into sentences ) .The purpose of theor. Gr.
of the lang. is to show a theor. description of its gr. system, i.e. to scientifically analyse and specify its gr. classs and survey mechanisms of gr. formation of vocalizations out of words in the procedure of address devising. The nature of grammar as a constitutional portion of linguistic communication is better understood in the visible radiation of explicitly know aparting the 2 planes of l-ge, viz. , the plane of content and the plane of look. The plane of content comprises the strictly semantic elements con & # 173 ; tained in l-ge, while the plane of look comprises the stuff ( formal ) units of l-ge taken by themselves, apart from significances rendered by them. The 2 planes are inseparably connected, so that no significance can be realized without some stuff agencies of look. Gram. elements of l-ge nowadays a integrity of content and ex & # 173 ; pression ( a integrity of signifier and intend & # 173 ; ing ) . In this the gr. elements are similar to the linguistic lexical elements, though the quality of gr. significances, as we have stated above, is different in rule from the quality of lexical significances. On the other manus, the correspondence between the planes of con & # 173 ; collapsible shelter and look is really complex, and it is curious to each linguistic communication. This complexness is clearly illustrated by the phenomena of lexical ambiguity, homonymy and synonymity.Linguistic units
base to one another in 2 cardinal types of rela & # 173 ; tions: syntagmatic and paradigmatic. Syntagmatic
dealingss
are immediate additive dealingss between units in a segmental sequence. E.g. : The starship was launched without the aid of a supporter projectile. In this sentence syntagmatically connected are the words and word-groups the starship, was launched, the starship was launched, was launched without the aid, the aid of a projectile, a supporter projectile. Paradigmatic dealingss
coexist with syntagmatic dealingss in such a manner that some kind of syntagmatic connexion is necessary for the reali & # 173 ; zation of any paradigmatic series. This is particularly apparent in a classical grammatical paradigm which presents a productive series of signifiers each consisting of a syntagmatic connexion of two elements: one common for the whole of the series, the other particular for every single signifier in the series. Grammatical paradigms express assorted grammatical classs. The minimum paradigm consists of 2 form-stages. This sort of paradigm we see, for case, in the look of the class of figure: boy – male childs

. A more complex paradigm can be divided into component paradigmatic series, i.e. into the corresponding sub-para­digms. In other words, with paradigms, the same as with any other systemically organized stuff, macro- and micro-series are to be dis­criminated. Unit of measurements of linguistic communication are divided into segmental and supra-segmental.
Segmental units consist of phonemes, they form phonemic strings of assorted position ( syllables, morphemes ) . Supra-segmental units do non be by themselves, but are realized together with segmental units and express different modificational significances ( maps ) which are re & # 173 ; flected on the strings of segmental units. To the supra-segmental units belong modulations ( modulation contours ) , speech patterns, intermissions, forms of word order. The segmental units of l-ge signifier a hierarchy of degrees. Segmental units consist of phonemes, they form phonemic strings of assorted position ( syllables, morphemes ) . Supra-segmental units do non be by themselves, but are realized together with segmental units and express different modificational significances ( maps ) which are re­flected on the strings of segmental units. To the supra-segmental units belong modulations ( modulation contours ) , speech patterns, intermissions, forms of word order. The segmental units of l-ge signifier a hierarchy of degrees.
This hi­erarchy is of a kind that units of any higher level are formed of units of the immediately lower level. Thus, morphemes are decomposed into phonemes, words are decomposed into morphemes, phrases are decomposed into words, etc. The lowest level of lingual segments is phonemic, it is formed by pho­nemes as the material elements of the higher-level segments. The pho­neme has no meaning, its function is purely differential: it differentiates morphemes and words as material bodies. Since the phoneme has no meaning, it is not a sign. Units of all the higher levels of language are meaningful; they may be called “signemes” as opposed to “cortemes”, i.e. non-meaningful units of different status, such as phonemes, syllables, and some others. The third level in the segmental lingual hierarchy is the level of words, or lexemic level. The word (lexeme), as different from the morpheme, is a directly naming (nominative) unit of l-ge: it names things and their rela­tions. Since words are built up by morphemes, the shortest words consist of one explicit morpheme only. The next higher unit is the phrase, it is located at the phrasemic level. To level-forming phrase types belong combinations of 2 or more notional words. These combinations, like separate words,have a nominative function, but they represent the referent of nomina­tion as a complicated phenomenon, be it a concrete thing, an action, a quality, or a whole situation. Then the level of sentences is located, or the proposemic level. The peculiar character of the sentence as a signemic unit of language consists in the fact that, naming a certain situation, or situational event, it expresses predication, i.e. shows the relation of the denoted event to reality. Namely, it shows whether this event is real or unreal, desirable or obligatory, stated as a truth or asked about, etc. In this sense, as different from the word and the phrase, the sentence is a predicative unit. The supra-proposemic construction is a combination of separate sentences forming a textual unity. In the typed text, the supra- sentential construction commonly coincides with the paragraph. The next level is the level of text which consists of a group of supra- sentential constructions. The highest level is the level of discourse. Discourse is interpret as a difficult communicative phenomenon which includes in itself social context, the information about participants, knowledge about the process production and perception of the text.
This hi­erarchy is of a kind that units of any higher level are formed of units of the immediately lower level. Thus, morphemes are decomposed into phonemes, words are decomposed into morphemes, phrases are decomposed into words, etc. The lowest level of lingual segments is phonemic, it is formed by pho­nemes as the material elements of the higher-level segments. The pho­neme has no meaning, its function is purely differential: it differentiates morphemes and words as material bodies. Since the phoneme has no meaning, it is not a sign. Units of all the higher levels of language are meaningful; they may be called “signemes” as opposed to “cortemes”, i.e. non-meaningful units of different status, such as phonemes, syllables, and some others. The third level in the segmental lingual hierarchy is the level of words, or lexemic level. The word (lexeme), as different from the morpheme, is a directly naming (nominative) unit of l-ge: it names things and their rela­tions. Since words are built up by morphemes, the shortest words consist of one explicit morpheme only. The next higher unit is the phrase, it is located at the phrasemic level. To level-forming phrase types belong combinations of 2 or more notional words. These combinations, like separate words,have a nominative function, but they represent the referent of nomina­tion as a complicated phenomenon, be it a concrete thing, an action, a quality, or a whole situation. Then the level of sentences is located, or the proposemic level. The peculiar character of the sentence as a signemic unit of language consists in the fact that, naming a certain situation, or situational event, it expresses predication, i.e. shows the relation of the denoted event to reality. Namely, it shows whether this event is real or unreal, desirable or obligatory, stated as a truth or asked about, etc. In this sense, as different from the word and the phrase, the sentence is a predicative unit. The supra-proposemic construction is a combination of separate sentences forming a textual unity. In the typed text, the supra- sentential construction commonly coincides with the paragraph. The next level is the level of text which consists of a group of supra- sentential constructions. The highest level is the level of discourse. Discourse is interpret as a difficult communicative phenomenon which includes in itself social context, the information about participants, knowledge about the process production and perception of the text.