The Low and middle income countries generate

concept of solid waste is a broad term that includes unwanted or unnecessary solid materials produced from
residential, industrial and commercial activities in a specific area. Solid
waste can be classified according to its origin (domestic, industrial,
commercial, institutional and construction), according to its potential hazard
(toxic, non-toxic, radioactive, flammable, infectious, etc.), as well as
according to solid waste contents (organic material, glass, metal, plastic
paper, etc.) (Femi and Oluwole, 2013). Increasing affluence, improving
standards of living, increasing rates of population growth, together with
increasing levels of commercial and industrial activities in urban areas around
the world, are the main reasons for a significant increase in quantities of
waste production. More effective disposal of solid waste is necessary; even in
countries that burn or recycle a large share of their waste and therefore
treatment of ashes resulting from burning solid waste remains an issue
(Brockerhoff, 2000; Proske et al., 2005). Improper solid waste management
causes air, soil and water pollution and is often the result of a lack of
financial resources. The problem of solid waste is very serious in third-world
countries, where 80% of the world population lives and this often relates to a
lack of financial resources (Al-Ansari, 2013). Waste-related diseases are the
main cause for the loss of 10% of each person’s productive life. The present
day municipal solid waste (MSW) generated reaches 277 million tonnes per year
(United Nations, 2010). Low and middle income countries generate 12.2% and
57.1% of that waste, while high income countries generate 30.7% (United
Nations, 2010). This figure is expected to increase to 677 million tonnes in
2025. The percentage of waste generated in high income countries will be 12.7%,
while it will be 16.4% and 70.9 % in middle and low income countries,
respectively (United Nations, 2010).. Management of MSW involves several
processes, including reducing quantities of waste, reusing, recycling and
recovering energy, as well as the incineration and burial of waste in landfills
(Moeinaddini et al., 2010).