Since the World Wide Web in the early 1990s, the Internet has grown at a rapid gait. Harmonizing to the World development indexs conducted by World bank ( 2010 ) , Malaysia Internet users are turning up to 56.6 % in the twelvemonth of 2009, which represents about 50,000 people uses the Internet, in which most of the users have experience in online shopping. These new sorts of shopping channels enable users to bask a different yet convenient shopping experience. In the minutess of business-to-consumer ( B2C ) , the Internet has changed the manner how steadfast operate in web sites. Certain features are doing it more convenient for the consumer, compared to the traditional manner of shopping, such as the ability to at any clip position and purchase merchandise, visualise their demands with merchandises, and discuss merchandises with other consumer ( Joiners et al. , 2003 ) .
As reference of above, these highly increased on Internet user created a revolution in existent estate securities firm services. In the early old ages of the Internet, some research workers frequently characterized it as a menace to the existent estate profession, peculiarly in the country of residential existent estate securities firm. ( Tuccillo, 1997 ) . However, the Internet is besides a valuable selling channel that allows storage, bringing, and exchange of huge sums of information at really low cost ( Peterson et al. 1997 ) . This realisation has created important alterations in existent estate securities firm services are provided, with existent estate agents puting to a great extent in this new engineering ( Tse and Webb, 2002 ) .
Harmonizing to Burt and Sparks ( 2003 ) , Internet is a potentially riotous invention for selling activities, Internet engineering provides the possibility of an alternate distribution channel, it can do constituted concern theoretical accounts obsolete, and it can present a existent menace to the existent estate concern in peculiar locations. E-commerce might, for case, decrease the relevancy of geographical propinquity, because physical propinquity between existent estate agents and consumer is no longer required ( Mitchell, 1995 ) . B2C e-commerce may besides dramatically change the composing and nature of existent estate sector in metropoliss ( Dixon and Marston, 2002 ; Dixon et al. , 2005 ) .
Harmonizing a research conducted at 1999 by National Association of Realtors ( NAR ) , founds that 23 per centum of all the surveyed persons searched online for a place, and about 58 per centum of those Internet users felt that on-line hunts were valuable or highly valuable to them. Another research behavior by Tse and Webb ( 2002 ) analyze the impact of monthly web page positions ( hits ) on the figure of minutess ( scaled by securities firm house selling staff and agents ) for a big securities firm house in Hong Kong from January 1996 through April 1999, keeping changeless advertisement disbursals and the figure of steadfast subdivisions. Their consequences indicate that a 1 % addition in the figure of page positions leads to about a 0.2 % addition in the figure of minutess per staff member. When associating page positions to compensation, the writers conclude that a 1 % addition in page positions increases the agent ‘s committee by about 0.4 % . These consequences suggest that entire grosss of the house are influenced by a house ‘s determinations about Internet usage. Harmonizing to the figure above, we can construe that on-line place purchasers are increasing and it create a direct impact to existent estate agents gross revenues gross by utilizing Internet. Additional, existent estate agents can use the Internet to cut down the cost of supplying information to possible purchasers. The top for the agent is that purchasers can fit with Sellerss and self-select belongingss they are interested in and cut down the clip and cost a agent must pass identifying and demoing belongingss to the purchaser. Moore ( 2000 ) provinces: ”A better-informed consumer leads to a more productive agent, which can salvage clip and money for the existent estate company. ” Assorted research workers and experts claim that existent estate agents who adopt and integrate Internet resources into their concern are likey to better: ( a ) their productiveness and profitableness ( Delcourse and Miller, 2001 ; Stanfill, 2000 ; Tse and Webb, 2002 ) , ( B ) interactions with and service to clients ( Conhaim, 1998 ; Delcourse and Miller 2001 ; Tse and Webb2002 ) ; ( degree Celsius ) client satisfaction ( Stanfill, 2000 ) , and ( vitamin D ) their professional accomplishments ( Cohaim, 1998 ) .
The intent of this survey is to turn to the research spreads identified above by look intoing the influence of proficient of utilizing Internet and possible effects on service supplier ‘s usage of Internet resources. We besides acknowledge the being of powerful theoretical models that have guided research on the acceptance and use of information engineering, including the theories turn toing the acceptance and diffusion of invention ( e.g, Rogers 1995 ) , the theory of reasoned action ( Ajzen and Fishbein 1980 ) , the theory of planned behaviour ( Ajzen and Madden 1986 ) and the engineering credence theoretical account ( David 1989 ) . However, the concept of this paper does non affect the comprehensive testing of any one or more of these theoretical models, but its combine these theories and utilizes related findings and focal points on identifying and proving for direct relationships between degree of Internet understanding, grade of Innovativeness, attitude and Internet use purpose. The motive of this survey is to happen out three chief facets: 1 ) What determine their willingness to utilize Internet ; 2 ) Purpose to utilize on-line belongings portal, in the context of Malaysia existent estate agents.
What relationships exist between a existent estate agent ‘s Innovativeness will bespeak the Internet use purpose?
What relationships exist between a existent estate agent ‘s Internet understanding will bespeak the Internet use purpose?
What relationships exist between a existent estate agent ‘s attitudes toward Internet will bespeak the Internet use purpose?
On-line existent estate portal acceptance
On-line existent estate portal acceptance is defined in this survey as the extent to which a existent estate agents utilizes the existent estate portal as a selling tool to efficaciously make and function his/her client ( californium. Gulati, Bristow, and Dou 2002 ) . Both concern ( e.g. , Dos Santos and Kuzmitz2000 ; Pease 2000 ) and academic publications ( e.g. , Hoffman and Novak 1996 ; Peterson et Al. 1997 ) have highlighted the public-service corporation of the Internet as a medium that enables better communicating between involved parties. In add-on, Weitz et Al. ( 2001 ) point out that the Internet is a medium that enables sales representatives to prospect, garner information about clients and chances, and communicate with principals and clients. Winer ( 2001 ) underscores the importance of constructing relationships with clients utilizing Internet, and Barua ( 2011 ) argues that the Internet has the really existent potency to heighten existent estate agents client services throughout the gross revenues procedure.
Although the Internet tend to be really possible and utile medium for existent estate agents, but the concern about disintermediation is still remain a debatable subject among researches. The concern about disintermediation is reflected rather good in a mock treatment in Guttery, Baen, and Benjamin ( 2000 ) : ”The fright traders ‘ theory is simple: If purchasers and Sellerss can sit at their computing machines and gather adequate information about each other ‘s offerings-and even make offers-why should they pay existent estate agents? ” Tse and Webb ( 2002 ) echo this concern: ”With the progress of engineering, it is possible that the Internet would enable information sharing and the bypassing of traditional information constructions. ” Tse and Webb ( 2002 ) point to the demand for more research on understanding the costs of an Internet presence for a agent. An of import cost to see in measuring the potency of the Internet for disintermediation of securities firm services is a purchaser ‘s hunt cost. The of import issue is whether the Internet reduces purchaser hunt cost to a degree that is lower than the securities firm fee. If so, the purchaser will carry on the hunt and will hold no demand for a agent.
Baen and Guttery ( 1997 ) assert that, prior to the development of recent engineerings ; the cost of geting information antecedently led purchasers to utilize agents in existent estate minutess. Tucillo ( 1997 ) argue that the decrease in information costs afforded by new engineerings such as computing machines and easy available databases will take to take down costs per dealing and a demand for fewer agents. Unlike Benjamin and Chinloy ( 1995 ) who contend that engineering additions sale monetary value, Baen and Guttery ( 1997 ) argue that lower dealing costs will ensue in an income transportation from agents to Sellerss and purchasers.
However, Guttery, Baen and Benjamin ( 2000 ) pose their concerns about agent disintermediation as: ”If information is power and if more information about existent estate markets is available to the general public through engineering, these technological alterations signal a transportation of power to consumers that will devaluate information and services antecedently available merely through REALTORS, their associates and other existent estate gross revenues licensees. The industry may be near to go offing as it faces the challenges of new vehicles such as the Internet for circulating existent estate information. ”
Miles ( 2000 ) offers the ”two existent estate dot coms ” theory that builds on the thoughts of Baen and Guttery ( 1997 ) . The first existent estate dot-com universe will germinate with the inquiry of how many agents will stay as the Internet reduces the demand for agents. Miles ( 2000 ) addresses disintermediation in the commercial securities firm industry as: ”The net loves to cut out jobbers and cut down borders. ” The 2nd existent estate dot-com universe will germinate as on-line existent estate agents choose the geographics in which to most productively extend their services. Well-financed securities firms will go progressively concentrated and powerful. Miles ( 2000 ) asserts that above mean growing will take topographic point in preferable vicinities. On the other manus, disparities in income and instruction mean that less attractive geographicss will be also-rans.
Stanfill ( 2000 ) addresses the hazard of disintermediation for commercial existent estate agents as the best manner to crush the Internet is to fall in the Internet. Real estate agents must merely accept the Internet as a manner of making concern and happen a manner to keep their value-add in the supply concatenation. In a study of 150 agents in Ohio, Muhanna ( 2000 ) seems to back up Stanfill ‘s contention by happening that the driver behind a agent following the Internet is the wish to pull new purchasers and cut purchaser acquisition costs as opposed to a simple fright of losing concern. On the other manus, Muhanna cautions that agents may be undervaluing the menace posed by the Internet for agent disintermediation. Similar decisions are reached in Aalberts and Townsend ( 1999 ) , Crowston and Wigand ( 1999 ) , Crowston, Sawyer and Wigand ( 2001 ) , Jud and Roulac ( 2001 ) and Ford and Rutherford ( 2002 ) .
Chemical bond, Seiler, Seiler and Blake ( 2000 ) acknowledge that the Internet provides the least cost method of supplying existent estate information. They argue that all Realtors can stay competitory merely if they offer their belongingss on the Internet. Bond et Al. study the Ohio existent estate securities firm market for web use. The study finds that most agents have their ain web sites or list belongingss on other sites and that shortly all agents will. The study besides indicates that the sum of information provided on existent estate sites is increasing. Bond et Al besides determine that agents have done a good occupation following information engineering. Bardhan, Jaffee and Kroll ( 2000 ) reach an correspondent decision and happen that existent estate agents can reinvent themselves as a new sort of mediator who can boom in the Internet universe.
This thought that encompassing information engineering can hold positive net benefits for existent estate agents is through empirical observation confirmed in Jud, Winkler and Sirmans ( 2002 ) , Sirmans and Swicegood ( 2000 ) and Benjamin, Jud, Roth and Winkler ( 2002a ) . Using informations from the 2001 National Association of REALTORS_ Profile
of Residential Real Estate Brokerages, Benjamin, Jud, Roth and Winkler ( 2002a ) focal points on the Internet and finds that the net income of residential existent estate agents increases with usage of the Internet. Zumpano, Johnson and Anderson ( 2002 ) utilizes the 2000 National Association of REALTORS Profile of Home Buyers and Sellers to analyze the hypotheses that the Internet will impact agent income and/or the demand for securities firm services by through empirical observation analyzing how the Internet impacts purchaser hunt clip and the strength of purchaser hunt. They find that the Internet reduces hunt clip nevertheless search strength really increases. Buyers end up looking at more belongingss without widening hunt continuance. Zumpano, Johnson and Anderson ( 2002 ) argue that as purchasers become more efficient in placing belongingss they are interested in, agents can so concentrate their clip on prosecuting the most likely gross revenues chances. The same statement is made by Ong, Miller and Chow ( 2002 ) . Zumpano, Johnson and Anderson interpret their findings as support for the old literature that advises agents to spread out their web presence in order to see their endurance as an mediator in existent estate dealing. As such, the decision lead to Internet
The American Heritage College Dictionary ( 1997 ) define understanding as “ good informed and perceptive ; practical apprehension or astuteness, to understand, to cognize, to be wise ” ( p. 1214 ) . We have adopted this definition and specify the concept of Internet-savvy as one ‘s accumulated, aggregative degree of cognition refering the Internet medium and one ‘s apprehension of the pertinence and utility of that engineering in carry throughing a undertaking or aim.
The relationship between a existent estate agent ‘s Internet-savvy and Internet use can possibly outdo be initiated with the citing Rogers ( 1995 ) work on diffusion of invention. Rogers suggest that an person ‘s cognition about an invention and how that invention maps will impact the likeliness of acceptance of said invention by that person. As suggested earlier, the more Internet-savvy is a existent estate agent, the more he/she knows about how to use this new engineering tool ( californium. Fugate 2001 ) . A natural decision drawn from the above treatment is that an person ‘s Internet-savvy relates straight and positively with his/her Internet use. This relationship is farther delineated below.
When faced with the challenges of developing new accomplishments and geting the proficient cognition necessary to efficaciously utilize an invention ( originating from new engineering ) , people tend to prorogue acceptance of that invention until they have acquired sufficient internal expertness. This line of logical thinking has received empirical support across a wide scope of acceptance scenes, including acceptance of new information engineering. For case, Neidleman ( 1979 ) found that the failure of European little concerns to use information systems could be attributed to a deficiency of cognition of such systems. Other surveies have established that employees with high degrees of cognition sing technological inventions ( Ettlie 1990 ; Thong 1999 ) . Therefore, the concept of Internet understanding could be defined as a existent estate agent ‘s accumulated, aggregative degree of cognition refering the Internet medium and his/her apprehension of the pertinence and utility of that engineering in carry throughing a undertaking or nonsubjective ( eg: merchandising activities ) . Based upon this definition, we expect that the greater is a gross revenues agent ‘s cognition of the Internet, the more he/she will utilize Internet to carry through merchandising related activities. Therefore, we can suggest the hypotheses as:
H1: Internet-Savvy is positively related to existent estate agents on-line belongings portal use purpose.
A basic dogma of the acceptance and diffusion of new merchandises in a society is that some persons tend to be exhibit greater involvement in, are speedy to seek information about, purchase, and utilize new merchandises shortly after those merchandises are introduced in the market. In this research, the writers have adopted Solomon ‘s ( 1996 ) definition and defined innovativeness as one ‘s willingness to or likeliness of rapidly following new thoughts, merchandises, services ; an persons who adopts such merchandises before the mass market does so, a willingness to be a ‘trend leaders ‘ ( Solomon 1996 ) .
Harmonizing to the invention diffusion theory ( Rogers, 1962, 2003 ) , people react otherwise to a new thought, pattern, or object due to their differences in single innovativeness, a predisposed inclination toward following an invention. The innovativeness of an person is a relentless trait that is brooding of an person ‘s implicit in nature when exposed to an invention. Rogers ( 2003 ) presents a meta-analysis of research that spans inventions from the inoculation of distant folks to the acceptance of IT in corporations. Based on the findings, Rogers ( 2003 ) proposes a categorization strategy that groups persons into several adopter classs.
Surveies on consumer research ( Hurt, Joseph, & A ; Cook, 1977 ; Midgley & A ; Dowling, 1978 ; Goldsmith, 1990 ) agree that single innovativeness is a dogging feature or temperament by which one person can be distinguished from another. Using the construct of adoptive parent classs to the country of technological invention, Moore ( 1991, 1999 ) convincingly explains how persons belonging to each adoptive parent class react otherwise to the debut of an invention and offers assorted practical guidelines on how to market new merchandises for each class of adoptive parents. Both Rogers ‘ ( 2003 ) and Moore ‘s ( 1999 ) surveies show that adoptive parent categorizations are based on an single trait of innovativeness that exists across civilizations and invention sphere types. The adoptive parents belonging to the same class have been found to portion common features and values with respect to the acceptance of an invention ( Brancheau & A ; Wetherbe, 1990 ; Moore, 1999 ; Rogers, 2003 ) . Pioneers and early adoptive parents are those who are willing to take a hazard of seeking out a new thought in front of other members of the system ( Moore, 1999 ; Rogers, 2003 ) . They find it easy to conceive of, understand, and appreciate the benefits of an invention. Their acceptance determinations are based on their ain intuition and vision, instead than well-established mentions. They besides tend to be greater donees of advanced engineerings than others. Therefore, the pioneers and early adoptive parents are advocates of extremist alterations ( Kirton, 1976 ) and riotous engineerings ( Moore, 1999 ) . While the pioneers and early adoptive parents portion many similarities, the pioneers are more risk-taking persons with more advanced proficient cognition than the early adoptive parents. The early bulk are chiefly driven by a strong sense of practicality. They prefer to wait and see how others people react to the new thought. In their acceptance determinations, well-established mentions play a critical function ( Moore, 1999 ; Rogers, 2003 ) . The late bulk adopts a new thought when it becomes an constituted criterion. They do non purchase or seek unless they are comfy with their ability to manage the engineering. They want to see considerable support and tend to purchase or seek from big well-established companies. Dawdlers tend to be really cautious about inventions. They adopt an invention merely when it becomes a necessity. Jointly, the invention diffusion research clearly indicates that earlier adoptive parents are more likely to follow a technological invention due to their innovativeness.
Constructing upon Rogers ‘ work ( 1962, 2003 ) , Agarwal and Prasad ( 1998 ) argued that a individual ‘s innovativeness degree is of import for analyzing the credence of information engineering invention. They defined personal innovativeness degree as ‘the single willingness to seek out any new information engineering ‘ . They assumed that a individual at a high degree of personal innovativeness might be a risk-lover or early adoptive parent, so that personal innovativeness affects agent ‘s behaviour or purpose to utilize the new engineering. Hence, we could contend that existent estate agents usage of Internet will be influenced by degree of innovativeness refering the Internet. A more advanced agent would be expected to comprehend lesser obstructions when sing the application of the Internet as a merchandising tool. Therefore, it could be hypothesized as:
H2: Innovativeness is positively related to existent estate agents on-line belongings portal use purpose.
A wider definition of attitude sees it as “ an abiding organisation of motivational, emotional, perceptual and cognitive procedures with regard to some facet of our environment ” ( Hawkins, Best and Coney, 2004 ) . More specifically, “ attitude refers to knowledge and positive or negative feelings about an object or activity ” ( Pride and Ferrell, 1991 ) and can besides be seen as an “ overall rating that expresses how much we like or dislike an object, issue, individual or action ” ( Petty, Unnava, and Strathman, 1991 ; Hoyer and MacInnis, 2001 ; Solomon, 2004 ) . Harmonizing to Davis ( 1993 ) , attitude can be defined as “ the grade of appraising affect that an single associates with utilizing the mark system ” . Attitudes represent what a individual feels about a construct, which may be any entity about which individuals can believe and attach feeling ( East, 1997 ) . Therefore, attitude plays an of import function in the existent estate agents determination to follow a new computing machine engineering ( e.g. , Davis et al. , 1989 ; O’Cass and Fenech, 2003 ) .
Harmonizing to Katz ( 1960 ) and Grewal, Mehta and Kardes ( 2000 ) attitudes serve four cardinal maps for persons: Knowledge map, as a agency of forming beliefs about objects or activities such as Internet acceptance, frequently finding subsequent behaviours ; Value-expressive map, when attitudes are formed and serve to show existent estate agents cardinal values and self-concept ; Utilitarian map, based on classical
status theory, with people be givening to organize positive attitude towards honoring system and negative attitude towards other system and besides Ego-Defensive map, when people form attitudes to support their self-importances and self-images against menaces and defects.
The best support for statement above would be research done in 1890ss ( Ajzen and Fishbein, 1975 ; 1980 ) shows Theory of reasoned action is a well-known theoretical account for foretelling and explicating single behaviour. Theory of reasoned action asserts that existent estate agents behaviour is determined by behavioural purposes to execute the behaviour, and that behavioural purposes are jointly determined by existent estate agents attitudes sing a behaviour. Specifically, attitudes describe general single feelings of favour or disfavour toward a specific behaviour. Harmonizing to the expectation-value theory, single attitudes toward a specific behaviour are defined as a map of salient beliefs and ratings of behavior results. Therefore, existent estate agents attitude concept links the causal relationships between his/her ( existent estate agents ) beliefs and behaviour.
In the engineering credence field, some research workers emphasize the relationship between attitude and purposes ( e.g. , Hausman and Siekpe, 2008 ) , whereas others argue its humbleness ( e.g. , Venkatesh et al. , 2003 ) , proposing that information system usage determinations might be dominated by cognitive beliefs, such as sensed utility, instead than impact, such as attitude. Yang and Yoo ( 2004 ) argue that research workers fail to separate between the two types of attitudes, where the potentially important influence of knowledge attitude gets offset by the undistinguished influence of affect attitude. However attitude besides found as a forecaster of existent behaviour in many empirical surveies ( e.g. Bajaj and Nidumolu, 1998 ; O’Cass and Fenech, 2003 ) and an extended organic structure of literature demonstrates the importance of attitude on behaviours ( e.g. , Ajzen and Fishbein, 1980 ; Dick and Basu, 1994 ) . Cao and Mokhtarian ( 2005 ) see that the corporate empirical grounds high spots the importance of clients ‘ attitude, because attitudinal factors explain most of the fluctuation in e-behavior. Yang and Yoo ( 2004 ) pointed out, attitude is resides in human head, therefore attitude have an impact on behaviour precedes and green goodss. Therefore attitude can be used to foretell behaviour. Besides it reflects people ‘s sensitivity to react either favourably or unfavourably to a peculiar behaviour, which may minimise societal desirableness prejudice. In drumhead, attitude tends to be a forecaster for predict existent estate agents Internet acceptance. Therefore it could be hypothesized as:
H3: Attitude is positively related to existent estate agents on-line belongings portal use purpose.
Firgue 1 nowadayss a conceptual model picturing the motive that ‘s drive existent estate agents usage of Internet as selling tool. The realstionship depicted in this model indicate to existent estate agents Internet understanding, degree of innovativeness and attitude to act upon the grade to which agents will follow the Internet as a merchandising tool.
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Internet Utilization Intention
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