In the universe today, the electronic and computing machine industry is regarded as one of the most profitable and cost effectual industry of todays coevals and in the hereafter. Apple Computer Company has operated in electronic and computing machine concern for more than 30 old ages, where it has gained repute of being an first-class maker of computing machines and other electronic goods such iphones and ipads, and nomadic phones. The organisation was established by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, and Ronald Wayne in the twelvemonth 1976.At the minute, the organisation place scope among the biggest technological organisations in the universe, and tends to use more 52,000 employees worldwide ( Wall street Journal,2011 ) . The establishment is credited to hold an upward development / advancement, which has seen the company grow from a little computing machine company to a universe category electronics consumer goods maker. Therefore, this paper gives an annotated bibliography of 10 articles that outlines the development of the Apple Computer company.
Annotated bibliography – The development of the Apple computing machine
Dougherty, M. ( 2010 ) .The History of Apple, Inc. Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.brighthub.com/computing/mac-platform/articles/65346.aspx
Harmonizing to the article, “ The history of Apple, Inc ” , Dougherty explores Apple Inc as an American company that was established by three engineering moguls, with purpose of supplying personal computing machines to American places. The company is good recognized with its Macintosh trade name, which besides include the celebrated iTunes media application, and the music participant, iPod.
The writer ascertains the company ‘s public presentation in the consumer electronics field, where it boosts of loyal consumers, though critics regard their merchandises as being overpriced.
In its history, the most of import public relation made by the company relate to attend they made in 1984, that depicted the constructs of the celebrated George Orwell novel, where large companies like IBM where regarded as large brother, while emerging companies like apple represented the female heroine. With the release of its celebrated ipad in 1998, the company was able to chase away some of its old errors which included the creative activity of a bulky and awkward looking PDA in old old ages. Three old ages subsequently the company developed an operating system named Mac OS X, which had capableness of tackling the power of UNIX, while at the same clip offering modernised consumer experience utilizing simplified and easy to utilize Graphical User Interface. Harmonizing to Dougherty ( 2010 ) , in the same twelvemonth the company developed iPod which established a phase for future dynamic merchandises such as the celebrated apple iphone, MacBook portable computing machines, and Apple ipad launched in January 2010.
The beginning is of high quality since gives analysis of the company history in respect to its merchandises and societal duty.
Wall street Journal ( 2011 ) .The Apple Evolution. Retrieved from
hypertext transfer protocol: //online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748703808904575024692608065072.html
Harmonizing to the article, “ The Apple Evolution, ” over 30 old ages the company has launched many hyped theoretical accounts which have made great impacts, with one or two disappointments.Apple company began its first mass production of computing machines in the twelvemonth 1977, where it produced a theoretical account named Apple 11, with 4 kilobits of RAM, a Floppy Disk Drive, and an affiliated proctor which displayed objects in green. In 1987 the company produced a theoretical account named Macintosh 11 which provided a steadfast point of view for development of Newton MessagePad in 1993 ; an electronic organiser which had capacity to acknowledge specific hadwriting.Despite its advantages, the merchandise was really bulky and expensive and was subsequently discontinued. Few old ages subsequently, the company developed Power Macintosh 6500. Subsequently launched iMac was launched followed by ; G4 Cube was sold without an attach toing proctor.
Despite its advanced size and design, the merchandise was really expensive and required immense sum of power to run ( Wall street Journal, 2011 ) . These issues together with consumer claims that its instance cracked forced the company to stop it development subsequently in the twelvemonth 2001.in the same twelvemonth the company developed iPod, which had capacity to download more than a 1000 vocals with quality similar to that of compact discs ( cadmium ) into a 5 GB Hard disc. At this clip, the merchandise had no iTune application and it operated under Macintosh Operating system. Under the counsel of Steve, the Company in 2001 launched another improved version of iMac which had an arm like construction that that allowed the screen to be rotated.The theoretical account had besides an integrated thrust which allowed combustion of informations into DVDs and CDs.Other apple merchandises up to twelvemonth 2010 include, the iTune shop in 2003, iPod mini in 2004, iPhone in 2007, MacBook Air in 2008, iPad in 2009, iPhone 4 For Verizon in 2011, and eventually iPad 2 in 2011.
This article gives analysis of all merchandises released by apple all the manner since it origin to 2011.
Edible Apple. ( 2009 ) .The Development and History of the Apple Logo. Retrieved from
& lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www.edibleapple.com/the-evolution-and-history-of-the-apple-logo & gt ;
This article describes all the Sons used by Apple company inc. , since its beginning in 1976. Harmonizing to the article, ” The Evolution and History of the Apple logo, ” the first apple logo was structured by Ronald Wayne, and it shows the image of Isaac Newton under a tree. The logo ne’er lasted for long, and it was replaced with a Rainbow Logo, which depicted an apple fruit with rainbow chevrons across its surface. The logo was initiated by Steve Jobs in late 1976, but it was designed by Rob Janoff.The chief purpose of this logo was chiefly to “ convey life or humanise ” the company, and it subsequently came to go the most familiar and iconic logo in electronics industry ( Edible Apple, 2009 ) . In 1998, the logo was so replaced with the Monochrome Logo, which is in operation up to day of the month. In respect to the article, it ‘s apparent that it describes and give exact timeframe when each logo was introduced therefore giving believable stuffs.
Funding Universe ( 2008 ) . Apple Computer, Inc. Retrieved from
& lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www.fundinguniverse.com/company-histories/Apple-Computer-Inc-Company- History.html & gt ;
Harmonizing to the article “ Apple Computer Inc ” , Funding universe property Apple Computer Inc, to hold tremendously changed the face of personal computing machine fabrication in the universe. Its first line of production under Macintosh label in 1984 placed the company as the trendsetter in industrial and personal design. The company ascended through 1980s with production of expensive computing machines where despite its monetary value, accounted for about 11 % of computing machines sold in America. The most imperative issue of the 1990s was non much related to technological promotion, but on human resource and direction, particularly on the top direction. This dented the company repute, and on one juncture it made the company ‘s stock to immerse with more than 20 % .With high turnover at the helm of the company, Jobs assumed his duties as the main executive in 1998, a place he holds up to day of the month. With his renewing accomplishments, Apple was able to accomplish its former glorification and consistent growing ( Funding Universe, 2008 ) .
This beginning is of high quality, in that it provides believable information in relation to direction of the company, and gives inside informations of public presentation of the top company ‘s direction.
Administrator. ( 2008 ) . Apple Inc. Evolution. Retrieved from
& lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ipodtopctransfer.com/news/apple-inc.html & gt ;
Harmonizing to the article “ Apple Inc, Evolution ” , Apple Inc, formely Apple computing machine Inc, is an American company specialising in computing machine hardware, package, media participants and computing machine accoutrements. The most successful merchandise in the company history was Apple 11, in 1977, which was followed by Lisa in 1983, a Personal computer with GUI and mouse. Subsequently in 1984, the company released Macintosh which subsequently came to go a major influence in promotion of GUI. In the twelvemonth 1991, Apple Inc established portable computing machines called PowerBooks line.This twelvemonth besides saw the company portion monetary value autumn due to stiff competition from IBM computing machines and Microsoft Windows. In the twelvemonth 2000s, Apple Inc increased its focal point to include package development, music, picture, and exposure processing equipments, with purpose of going a “ digital hub ” .
At the minute the company is involved in production of Intel based Mac computing machines, which was initiated in 2006.In 2000s, the company stock has besides increased by tenfold, from about 7 $ to 81 $ .Despite addition in computing machine demand, the company still remains behind some of its major rivals such as Dell and Microsoft Windows, and it merely account approximately 8 % of the US market share.This beginning gives an lineation of major episodes happening in the company history, therefore supplying high quality stuff that is dependable for both research and referencing ( Administrator,2008 ) This type of pattern principle is most suited as a realisation tool reverse to an assessment tool that needs a dissimilar sort of confirmation every bit good as different ensuing steps. The constructs of this article must so be viewed in the model of the guidelines advantages.
Singh, A. ( 2004 ) . Apple runing system ( OS ) History. Retrieved from
& lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www.kernelthread.com/publications/appleoshistory/1.html & gt ;
In regard to, “ Apple operating system ” by Singh. A ( 2004 ) , Of all operating systems produced by Apple, Mac OS X is the most inimitable one and it tend to stand for a paradigm alteration of engineering, political orientations and constructs, which have made it survive competition from its challengers. Harmonizing to Singh, A ( 2004 ) , the first Bytes into an Apple consisted of Apple I, which had an 8 byte microprocessor and a MOS 6502.The computing machine had no instance, and consisted of 8 kilobit RAM and a keyboard interface. Just like Apple I, Apple 11 consisted of 6502 microprocessor, which had a figure of runing systems such as Apple Dos, Apple Pascal, Apple CP/M, Apple SOS, Apple ProDOS. After the release Apple II in mid 1977, it was discovered that holding a disc thrust for that theoretical account was imperative, and this made Wozniak plan a floppy disc thrust that required ( DOS ) disc runing system. The first theoretical account or version of DOS was Apple DOS 3.1 which remained in usage for quiet sometime, with merely minor ascents taking topographic point. After utilizing Dos system for approximately 8 old ages, apple introduced Mac Os 8 in 1997, which established a platform that led to acquisition of NeXT Software Inc. And Steve Jobs, the company laminitis, as adviser. Under the helm of Steve, the company was able to present assorted advancement/ versions of the Mac Os systems, with the most sophisticated one being released in 2008 under the name, Mac OS X 10.6, nicknamed Snow Leopard.
This beginning is really believable in that it gives analysis and history of runing systems.The article is besides of high quality for the ground that its equal reviewed.
Moeen, H. ( Aug 31, 2009 ) .Apple: The Evolution. Retrieved from
& lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //pakmediablog.net/815/apple-the-evolution & gt ;
Harmonizing to Moeen article, “ Apple: the Development, ” Wozniak and Steve Jobs started working for HP and Atari severally, after finishing high schooling early old ages Wozniak was nicknamed ‘Apple Genius ‘ . After a short enchantment, Wozniak was involved in an accident ; from there he decided to foster his instruction at the University of Berkeley, where he returned back to the company with more accomplishments originating creative activity of Apple III.The theoretical account had many issues and led to creative activity of a new advanced Apple III ‘s, which came with low monetary values, improved sockets and a difficult disc of 5MB.Failures from Apple 111 forced the Apple Inc to develop Macintosh theoretical account in 1984, which was received good by an aroused and manque clients. The theoretical account was inexpensive and light.Various versions of Mac followed aiming different patronage, taking to constitution of Mac plus in the twelvemonth 1986, Mac II in the twelvemonth 1987. Harmonizing to this article, before the terminal of the twentieth century Apple Inc has been able to run into demands of environment safety criterions, necessitating it to halt doing their merchandises with CFC ‘s ( Moeen, 2009 )
Credibility of this beginning is based on the fact that it gives inside informations of its laminitis, though it does non lucubrate on their specific parts.
Web Designer Depot ( 2008 ) .The Evolution of Apple Design Between 1977-2008.Retrieved from
& lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www.webdesignerdepot.com/2009/01/the-evolution-of-apple-design-between- 1977-2008/ & gt ;
Harmonizing to Web Designer Depot ( 2008 ) , the development of Apple Inc had celebrated floating-point operations and leaps.1977 saw the constitution of the celebrated company logo and Apple 11, which differentiated the company from its rivals in the market. What followed was the launch of Apple 111 1980, which was manufactured chiefly to vie with Microsoft and IBM. In 1984 Lisa/Macintosh XL theoretical account was introduced, followed by Apple IIGS and Macintosh Plus – in 1986. In 1987 a new theoretical account with an internal difficult disc called Macintosh SE was introduced, followed by Macintosh SE/30 in the twelvemonth 1989, which had a RAM capable of enlargement and a 1.44 MB floppy thrust. Other Macintosh theoretical accounts of the 1990s include Macintosh Classic in 1990, Macintosh Classic II in 1991, Macintosh Color Classic in the twelvemonth 1993, Apple Macintosh LC 500 in late 1993, Macintosh Performa 5200 in the twelvemonth 1995, Twentieth Anniversary Macintosh ( TAM ) in the twelvemonth 1997, PowerMac G3 All-In-One in the twelvemonth 1998, iMac G3 Tray-Loading, Bondi Blue still in the twelvemonth 1998, and eventually iMac G3 Slot-Loading Indigo in 1999.Versions of the 2000s include eMac in 2001, iMac G4 in the twelvemonth 2002, iMac G5 in the twelvemonth 2005, and eventually iMac ( Intel Based ) – Aluminum in the twelvemonth 2007 ( Web Designer Depot, 2008 ) .
This beginning is of high quality and really believable in that it spells out All-In-One Computers of Apple Inc.
Wilson, M. ( 2007 ) .30 Old ages of Apple Evolution. Retrieved from
& lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //gizmodo.com/ # ! 276009/30-years-of-apple-evolution & gt ;
Harmonizing to Wilson ( 2007 ) , article “ 30 Old ages of Apple Evolution ” , most of the early Apple merchandises were designed by Edwin Tofslie.The article identifies Apple Inc to be viing in the engineering sector, which contented by big figure of rivals seeking to retroflex each others success. Since the company origin, the top challengers of the company included Amiga and Atari ST, IBM and, Compaq. In 1970s, Atari and Amiga were the company ‘s strongest challengers, while Microsoft became its strongest challengers in early 1990s ( Wilson, 2007 ) .
The beginning is of high quality, but it ‘s non believable plenty because it does non give inside informations of all the company ‘s rivals.
Apple Inc. ( 2008 ) .History of Apple Inc. /Progress in the 1990s. Retrieved from
& lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //en.wikibooks.org/wiki/History_of_Apple_Inc./Progress_in_the_1990s & gt ;
Harmonizing to this article, in the company history mid 1990s was the period of uninterrupted incompetency, while late 1990s was the period of reconstructing. In early 1990s, Apple Inc was executing really severely with most of their merchandises uninspired, overpriced, and missing innovation. The company suffered from monolithic competition from Microsoft and IBM, since most of its Macintosh theoretical accounts had comparatively inconsequential betterments. Trade names crushing Apple had standard manners and their monetary values where significantly lower ( Apple Inc, 2008 ) .With position to reconstruct and roll up old errors, in the twelvemonth 1998 the company launched the iMac platform which consisted of SCSI designs, and ADB ports. Subsequently the iMac Portable theoretical account was initiated, followed by advanced G3, G4, G5, and eMac theoretical accounts.
In the twelvemonth 2001, the company with purpose of accomplishing illustriousness invented the iPod music participant, which was followed by more advanced theoretical accounts like iPod nano, exposure, picture, and mini. In 2006 the company changed its processor to that of Intel ‘s, which had a Core Duo processor.
Credibility of this beginning is based on its capacity to give events that occurred in the 1990s, a stage viewed as really of import in the company history and development.