The government routinely violated the human
rights of its citizens as major conflict enveloped the country. The government maintained control
over its uniformed military, police, and state security forces but did not
maintain effective control over foreign and local paramilitary organizations.
These included Hizballah and the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps; no
uniformed progovernment militias, such as the National Defense Forces; the
Bustan Charitable Association; or “shabiha,” which often acted autonomously
without oversight or direction from the government. The government’s use of
lethal force to quell peaceful civil protests calling for reform and democracy
in 2011 precipitated a civil war in 2012. The civil war continued during the
Syrian war broke out in March 2011 as a prodemocracy protest in bid to release
some teenagers who had been arrested and tortured after they painted
voluntarily slogans in the walls of the school. After the police opened fire
and killed the demonstrators, to what was termed as peaceful protest, more
people took to the streets. Inspired by the success of the Arab spring in
Tunisia and Egypt the citizens took to the streets to demonstrate against the
oppressive government of president Bashar-al-Assad. The acts of government
towards the demonstrators inflamed the resentment towards Syria government which
was fueled by consisted mostly of soldiers who had defected from army with an
aim of overthrowing the government.
to various human rights to human rights group s and organizations, there has
been a great deal of human rights violation cases committed by both the
government and the rebel group, with the largest part being done by the
government these are the crimes against humanity where we had use of fire
against unharmed civilians .door to door arrest campaigns, shooting the medical
personnel’s wh9o were trying to help the wounded and raids in hospital. There
were war crimes where civilians were tortured and raped enforced disappearance
and civilians suffering where they blocked accesses to international monitor’s
humanitarian groups and human rights groups. The governments attack on the
civilians shifted from sporadic violence to targeting large scale killing using
cluster bombs and chemical weapons.
The UN commission of inquiry bon Syria reported the number of forced disappearance
remained high .the majority of disappearances reported by activists, human
rights observers, and international NGOs appeared to be politically motivated.
According to the United Nations activist groups, an estimated 470000 people
were killed over with 1.9 million wounded in this war .investigators from the
organizations of prohibition of chemical weapon found that chlorine was used
severally in attacking rebel areas. There is also an influx of refugees in
neighboring countries of Lebanon and Jordan. All these happenings in Syria begs
for the famous doctrine of the responsibility to protect .this being the
doctrine that permits the international community to intervene when the state
lacks or is unable to protect i6ts
citizens when there is gross violation of human rights.
used in Syria during the violation of human rights
There were a number of treaties at
play in Syria, sub-regional, national, regional and global level.in global
level Syria is a member of the United Nations this means some treaties are
binding to it and some are not. Syria has not yet signed the Rome statute that
makes the use of poisoners gas during the war to be considered as a war crime.
Syria signed but has yet to ratify the convention on biological weapon.in 1925
Syria signed the Geneva Convention which established the general rule for the
treatment of the civilians in wars specifically that noncombatants are not to
be subjected to murder, torture, rape or other cruel treatment.in 1925 Syria
signed the Geneva gas protocol which regulates the use of poisoners gas between
states incas4e of civil war.
Issues of implementation
Violence in Syria has confirmed
ongoing international efforts to implement a cease fire in talks brokered by
Russia, turkey, and Iran by the United Nations. Government forces and their
allies deliberate and indiscriminate attacks on civilians .The Syrian government should immediately
release human rights defenders, Mazen Darwish, Hussein
Ghareer and Hani Al-Zitani, members of the Syrian Centre for Media
and Freedom of Expression (SCM), and drop all the charges against them. Another
hearing of their trial held on 18 November 2013 at the Anti-Terrorism Court in
Damascus on alleged terrorism charges brought against them by the Syrian
Government’s Air Force Intelligence. Reports confirmed that once again the
trial was postponed to 27 January 2014, at the request of the prosecution which
has failed to prove the charges against them.
of the international treaties
contributed to the non-application of responsibility to protect in Syria
Responsibility to protect was not applied in Syria because of the ties between
Russia and the government. Russia was said to be committed to Assad regime.
Finally the use of the responsibility to protect is hard because of tri-level
proxy war, these refers to war that is instigated by major powers but it itself
does not become involved. Also the existence of a military strong regime that
would prove futile for western world because they had no enough budget to
invest in.syria also has strong armed forces with credible air defense forces
an invention would prove to be difficult. There was issue on geopolitical
environment where the Arab league could not reach a consensus in favor of tough
action. The responsibility to protect was not applied none the less we cannot
ignore the initiative and efforts of our states and regional organizations to
try help civil war in Syria. Likely
end-game scenarios for Syria’s three-year-long civil war are coming into view,
even if the actual end of the conflict appears as hopelessly far-off as ever. The collapse of Assad would be a drawn-out affair involving the
slow loss of a substantial number of regime soldiers over a period of months.
This outcome would only come about through the rebels acquiring more advanced
weaponry like portable anti-aircraft missiles.