Most of Iran is made up of rugged terrain. The state contains tremendous mineral wealth, much of which has yet to be exploited. Iran is capable to some of the universe ‘s most terrible temblors, and the geological instability has often resulted in major physical harm and great loss of life.[ 1 ]Iran is dominated by a cardinal tableland that is about 1,220 m ( 4,000 foot ) high and is about ringed by mountain ironss.[ 2 ]In the North are the Elburz Mountains, paralleling the southern shore of the Caspian Sea. The highest extremum in Iran, Mount DamA?vand ( 5,604 m/18,386 foot ) , is portion of this mountain system. The Caspian Sea, at 28 m ( 92 foot ) below sea degree, is the lowest point in Iran.[ 3 ]Along the western boundary line the complex Zagros Mountains widen south-east, running parallel to the Persian Gulf. Mountains of lower lift prevarication to the E of the cardinal tableland. Except for the comparatively fertile tableland of the northern Persian states of East and West Azerbaijan, the mountain dirts are thin, to a great extent eroded, and infertile.[ 4 ]The narrow Caspian coastal field, in contrast, is covered with rich brown forest dirt. The lone other by and large level country is the field of Khuzestan in the West.[ 5 ]
Two great comeuppances extend over much of cardinal Iran. The Dasht-e LA«t, running from the Centre of the tableland towards the South, is covered mostly with sand and stones ; and the Dasht-e KavA«r, running across the North of the cardinal tableland, is covered chiefly with salt.[ 6 ]Both comeuppances are inhospitable and virtually uninhabited. In the winter and spring little watercourses flow into the Dasht-e KavA«r, making little, seasonal lakes and lasting swamps.[ 7 ]At other times of the twelvemonth both comeuppances are highly waterless. Most of Iran ‘s rivers are seasonal, fluxing merely during the portion of the twelvemonth when precipitation is heaviest. The state ‘s chief lasting rivers flow off the mountains on the inclines confronting the Caspian Sea, the Persian Gulf.[ 8 ]The River KA?rA«n, fluxing from the Zagros Mountains to the Shatt Al Arab at Khorramshahr, is the state ‘s chief navigable river.[ 9 ]Besides the Caspian Sea, Iran has few big lakes. Most shrink in size during the hot, dry summer and have a high salt content because they have no mercantile establishment to transport away the salt left when the H2O evaporates. The largest organic structure of H2O wholly within Iran is Lake OrA«mA«yeh, a salt lake in the north-west. It varies in country between 3,900 sq kilometer and 6,000 sq kilometer ( 1,506 sq myocardial infarction and 2,317 sq myocardial infarction ) depending on the season.[ 10 ]
Iran is divided climatically into four chief parts: the highly hot and humid seashore along the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman ; the dry cardinal tableland, with stop deading winters and blazing summers ; the Elburz and Zagros mountain ironss, with cold winters, mild summers, and high precipitation ; and the narrow Caspian Plain, a fertile, semi-tropical country, with a really warm and humid microclimate.[ 11 ]Winter brings really cold conditions and snow to the West and inside of the Persian tableland ; low force per unit area over the warm Waterss of the Caspian Sea and the Persian Gulf brings mild sub-tropical conditions to those parts.[ 12 ]The Shamal air current blows from Pakistan from February to October, north-westerly through to the Tigris-Euphrates vale, while a “ 120-day ” summer air current with a speed of up to 40 kilometers per hr ( 24 miles per hour ) scorches the Sistan part near the boundary line with Pakistan.[ 13 ]
Temperatures range from a high of 51A° C ( 123A° F ) in summer in Khuzestan in the West to a depression of -37A° C ( 35A° F ) in winter in the North. The mean temperatures for the months of January and July in Tehran are 2A° C ( 36A° F ) and 29A° C ( 85A° F ) , severally. The mean temperatures during the same months in AˆbA?dA?n are 12A° C ( 54A° F ) and 36A° C ( 97A° F ) . Precipitation besides varies widely, from less than 50 millimeter ( 2 in ) in the south-east to 1,950 millimeter ( 77 in ) in the Caspian Sea coastal part. The one-year norm for the state is about 350 millimeters ( 14 in ) . Average one-year precipitation in Tehran and AˆbA?dA?n is 246 millimeter ( 10 in ) and 204 millimeter ( 8 in ) severally.[ 14 ]On the semi-humid tableland of Iran, grass screen is used for croping farm animal. Approximately 11 per cent of the state is forested.[ 15 ]The Zagros Mountains have a semi-humid wood dominated by oak, elm, Pistacia vera, and walnut trees. On the offshore inclines of the Elburz Mountains and on the Caspian field, flora is abundant. In these countries broadleaf deciduous trees such as ash, elm, oak, and beech flourish, along with some broadleaf evergreens, ferns, and bushs. On the waterless tableland, chaparral and cactus growing dominate.[ 16 ]
Iran has a broad assortment of autochthonal wildlife. Fauna includes the coney, fox, wolf, hyaena, Canis aureus, leopard, cervid, hedgehog, ibex, bear, Wisconsinite, weasel, king of beasts, and the now-rare tiger.[ 17 ]Pheasant and partridge are found inland ; pelican and flamingo strain along the Persian Gulf. There are sturgeon, whitefish, and herring in the Caspian Sea.[ 18 ]
The Asiatic Black Bear
The Asiatic black bear ( Iranian: O®O±O? Khers ) is classified as Ursus thibetanus and belongs to the household Ursidae.[ 19 ]The Asiatic black bear is chiefly a secondary consumer, as it feeds largely on flora, but still eats little game. The Asian black bear is about the same size as the American black bear, with females at approximately 50 to 125 kilograms ( 110 to 275 pound ) and the males about 100 to 200 kilograms ( 220 to 485 pound ) .[ 20 ]They have five comparatively long, midst, curved front claws adapted to mounting trees and delving ; their hair is long on the cervix and shoulders, and they have a really big, white ( sometimes brownish ) chest. They breed from May to June, have by and large two greenhorns, and leave at least two old ages between litters.[ 21 ]Asian black bears feed on succulent flora, berries, nuts, insects, some gnawers, and carrion. They are considered really aggressive and unsafe in close brushs in the dense woods.
The Long-legged Buzzard
The Leggy Buzzard ( Iranian: U?O±U†O?U‡A Parandeh ) is classified as Buteo rufinus and is aA bird of quarry. It inhabits the dry unfastened fields of Iran. It feeds largely on little gnawers, although it will besides take lizards, serpents, little birds and big insects.[ 22 ]This makes the bird a secondary consumer as it is aA Carnivore which eats herbivores.A
The Long-legged Buzzard of Iran is larger than its opposite numbers in other parts of the universe ( approximative length 60-65cm / 24 ” ) and more robust.[ 23 ]There are many different coloring material signifiers, but normally they have a clear orange shade to the feather, ruddy or orange tail, pale caput and mostly white underwings. There is normally a typical black carpal spot and dark tracking border to the wing. Plumage varies from ghostly pale persons to really dark 1s. Some feathers are about similar to those of the Steppe Buzzard, the easternA subspeciesA of theA Common BuzzardA ( Buteo buteo vulpinus ) , but Leggy Buzzards have longer wings and are more like Rough-Legged turkey vultures or even a smallA AquilaA bird of Jove.[ 24 ]
Open, uncultivated countries, with high shrubs, trees, drops or knolls are favored as nesting countries.
TheA Eurasian lynx
Lynx ( animate being ) , common name for a wild carnivore characterized by disproportionately long legs and big, heavy paws. Lynxs are found throughout the temperate and subarctic parts of the Northern hemisphere. They are stout-bodied animate beings, 65 to 130 centimeter ( 26 to 51 in ) in length, with thick, soft pelt and short, stubby dress suits. Most species have a tussock of hair, more than 2 centimeter ( aˆ? in ) long, at the tip of each ear. Lynxs are nimble climbers, passing some of their clip in good conditions on the subdivisions of trees, waiting for the weaker mammals and tellurian birds that constitute their quarry to go through beneath them. It is besides common for lynxes to stalk their quarry. In inclement conditions and when genteelness, they take shelter in caves or in hollow trees or logs. Two to four kitties make up the norm litter. Lynxs are valued for their pelt.
By and large, four types of lynxes are recognized: the Spanish lynx, whose population continues to worsen and which is listed as an endangered species ; the bay lynx, besides known as the wildcat, which is widespread throughout the United States ; the Eurasiatic lynx of Scandinavia and northern Eurasia ; and the Canadian lynx. The Canadian lynx is found from the northern United States throughout Canada and Alaska ; it is the largest species in North America. The Eurasiatic lynx is a to a great extent built cat with long legs. Its coat is yellowish-brown in summer, paler in winter, and covered in big pale musca volitanss, particularly on the legs. The mean head-and-body length is 80 to 130 centimeter ( 35y to 51 in ) . The Spanish lynx is merely somewhat smaller than the Eurasiatic species. Its coat is besides similar, merely the musca volitanss are smaller and darker. They both feed on hares, coneies, gnawers, cervid, and land birds.
The Persian Leopard
Leopard, common name for a big member of the cat household that occupies a broad scope of home grounds and has the most extended distribution of any of the wild species of cat, happening throughout much of Africa and Asia. The organic structure of an grownup leopard is approximately 0.91 to 1.91 m ( 3 to 6.3 foots ) long, sole of the 1-m ( 39-in ) tail. Typically the coat is pale sunburn, and it is marked with broken circles of black musca volitanss. Unlike the rosettes of the American panther, these circles have no cardinal topographic point. Specimens with darker land colorss are seen, and some leopards-born in otherwise ordinary litters-are wholly black and are known as black jaguars.
The leopard is an nimble climber and will frequently stalk monkeys in the trees. It hunts chiefly at dark. When game is scarce, a leopard will eat field mouse, fruit, porcupines, baboons, or arthropods. The female bears one to six immature per litter.
The name leopard is besides given to other species resembling the true leopard, such as the clouded leopard of south-eastern Asia, with cloud-like markers on its greyish to yellowish coat, and the snow leopard of Central Asia. The chetah is sometimes called the runing leopard.
TheA Persian Fallow DeerA
Iranian fallow cervid are bigger than Fallow Deer, theirA antlersA bigger and less palmated. They are about nonextant today, populating merely a little home ground inA Khuzestan, southernA Iran, two instead little protected countries inA MazandaranA ( northern Iran ) , an country of northernA IsraelA and an island inA Lake UrmiaA in north-western Iran and in some parts ofA Iraq [ 2 ] . They were once found from Mesopotamia and Egypt to the Cyrenaica and Cyprus. Their preferable home ground is unfastened forest. They are bred in menagerie and Parkss in Iran, Israel and Germany today. The bing population may be enduring from inbreeding and deficiency of familial diverseness. Since 1996 they have been bit by bit and successfullyreintroducedA from aA engendering centerA in the Carmel, into the natural state in northern Israel, and more than 650 of them now live in theA Galilee, Mount CarmelA countries and theA Brook of Sorek. [ 3 ]
The Bioluminescent Fungus
Omphalotus nidiformis, orA shade fungus, is a gilledA basidiomyceteA mushroomA found in southern Australia most noteworthy for itsbioluminescentA belongingss. By and large found turning on dead or deceasing trees, it isA saprotrophA andA parasite.
Its scientific name is derived from theA LatinA nidusA ” nest ” , therefore ‘nest shaped ‘ . Similar in visual aspect to theA oyster mushroom, it was antecedently considered a member of the same genus, A Pleurotus, and described under the former namesA Pleurotus nidiformisA orA Pleurotus lampas. However, it isA poisonousA and while non deadly, devouring this mushroom leads to severeA crampsA andA purging. Poisonings have occurred over confusion withA oyster mushrooms. It is one of several species with bioluminescent belongingss happening worldwide, all of which are toxicant with the exclusion ofA Armillaria.
Human INTERACTIONS WITH NUTRIENT CYCLES OR POPULATIONS AND ENDANGERED SPECIES:
TheA Asiatic Cheetah