The Development Of Desire Essay Research Paper

The Development Of Desire Essay, Research Paper

The Development of Desire

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The development of the male warrior, throughout literature, has a direct

relationship with the development of western civilisation. The properties a

warrior holds, fall severally with the properties that each society held as

valuable. These features, started by societies ideals, become the

warrior & # 8217 ; s lone grounds for go oning their heroics. The ideals nevertheless do

alteration with each warrior. At the beginning we have a warrior with one mission,

which subsequently the warriors become more challenged and have to alter thoughts and

constructs to go on. The development of the warriors desires becomes the complex

ideals that western civilisation develops over clip. With this patterned advance of

civilisation, from simple to complex ideals, so will the development of the ideals

and desires of our heroes change from simple to complex.

Odysseus is a adult male who is both strong and smart, but most known non for

the muscle of his organic structure, but the marbless of his encephalon. A adult male who is loved in every

state, but Trojan, and could remain where of all time he chooses, his crewmans knew this

to be true as one bench mate to the following, ? It ne’er fails. He is welcome

everyplace: hail to the captain when he goes ashore! ? ( Homer 166 ) . The sarcasm

falls as Odysseus merely desires his fatherland. ? Get down when all the remainder who left

behind them headlong decease in conflict or at sea had long ago returned, while he [

Odysseus ] entirely still hungered for place and married woman? ( Homer 1 ) .

Odysseus has many chances to stop his journeys and get down a new life.

For case, if he desired, Odysseus was able to remain with Kalypso who wanted

him everlastingly, ? Her Ladyship Kalypso clung to him in her sea-hollowed caves- a

nymph, immortal and most beautiful, who craved him for her ain? ( Homer 1 ) .

Kalypso knows even though she has Odysseus in her place, he is non hers to hold. ?

Son of Laertes, versatile Odysseus, after all these old ages with me, you still

want your old place? Even so I wish you good? ( Homer 87 ) . To which Odysseus

answers, ? & # 8230 ; Yet, it is true, each twenty-four hours I long for place, long for the sight of

place & # 8230 ; ? ( Homer 87 ) . Another opportunity for Odysseus to get down a new life is offered

by the male monarch of the Phaecians to get married his girl and live at that place ; ? & # 8230 ; seeing

the adult male that you are, seeing your ideas are my ain thoughts-my girl

should be yours and you my son-in-law, if you remained. ? ( Homer 120 ) . In each

instance, Odysseus, merely wants to return to his married woman Penelope, his boy, and most of

all his fatherland.

Odysseus, who endures many adversities throughout his journeys, ever

seemed to be one measure in front of the reader in cognizing what to make to acquire out of a

state of affairs. The jobs during the narratives come non from Odysseus judgement, but

the judgement of his work forces. This became apparent more than one time when his work forces would

disobey his orders, which resulted in decease or hazard. To exemplify, the narrative

of the work forces taking the bag from Aiolos from under the deck right when they were

at the sight of their fatherland:

Nine yearss and dark we sailed without event, till the ten percent we

raised our land. We neared it, and saw the work forces constructing fires along shore ; but

now weary to the bone I [ Odysseus ] fell into deep slumber & # 8230 ; but while I slept

the crew began to parley: Ag and gold, they guessed, were in that

bag & # 8230 ; . [ bench couples ] & # 8216 ; Who has gifts from Aiolos? He has. I say we ought to check

that bag, there & # 8217 ; s gold and Ag, plentifulness, in that bag! & # 8217 ; ( Homer 166 ) , with

such greed, by opening the bag, the inauspicious air currents are unleashed with full rage. ?

Then every air current roared into a hurricane ; the ships went fliping West with many

calls ; our land lost? ( Homer 166 ) . With these tests of Odysseus, and throughout

the journey, we see Odysseus spares nil on his return place. He loses work forces,

ships, and wealth from Troy and the Gods. With all the losingss he sustains over

the long journey he is unaffected, for his lone passion is to return place.

Odysseus & # 8217 ; s biggest property is his personal control of emotions and events.

He has many emotions throughout the narrative, but ever exhibits control in

thought and actions. Look at the careful planning and forbearance when waiting for

the clip to kill all his suers. Another continuance, Odysseus wants to penalize his

work forces many times over for the greed and stupidity they show throughout their

journeys, ? My work forces are mutinous saps & # 8230 ; ? ( Homer 146 ) , but he controls his choler

and continues on their journey back place. Odysseus, with such control, is the

really theoretical account of a leader and male monarch. Control was really valuable in Grecian society. A

perfect contrast to Odysseus & # 8217 ; s & # 8217 ; control is the character Antinous. Antinous has

no control over his emotions or actions, as he leads the prohibition of suers, being

the most brash of the suers. Look at the choler he displaces on Odysseus during

a dinner in which Odysseus is in camouflage as a mendicant:

God what evil air current blew in this plague? Get over, stand in the transition! Nudge

my tabular array, will you? Egyptian whips are sweet to what you & # 8217 ; ll come to here,

you intruding rat, doing your pitch to everyone! ( Homer 325 ) .

The desire of Odysseus to returning place is that of pure dedication. This

is easy seen throughout the text, by the rejections he sends to all who give

him gifts to remain. This dedication falls into the ideals of the Grecian civilization,

and the belief behind community above all other ideals. Wealth, and power would

be nil without the sense of community behind the person. A careful expression

into the narrative of The Odyssey, points out Homer & # 8217 ; s feelings of when the sense of

community can be abused with the presentation of the suers. A statement

speaks of Odysseus & # 8217 ; s absolute desire to return place. When he nears Ithacas & # 8217 ;

shores which falls asleep from exhaustion, his work forces doom him by taking the gift

from Aiolos, as mentioned antecedently in the text, the somberness and desperation Odysseus

confesses to as the idea he whispers to himself, ? Roused up, despairing in

that somberness, I thought: & # 8216 ; Should I travel overside for a speedy coating or clinch my

dentitions and remain among the life? & # 8217 ; & # 8230 ; ? ( Homer 166 ) . Such a idea does happen to

our hero, but he fights to return place alternatively of taking the simple manner out, and

finally becomes exultant in his desire.

Beowulf becomes a different type of male warrior which surfaces at a new

clip in civilisation from The Odyssey. Written after the ancient civilisations

of Greek and Rome, clicking in the hr of the dark ages. Our warrior surfaces

during a clip when different folks throughout Europe were seeking to maintain their

different individualities alive. To carry through such a effort, the warriors of this epoch

had to hold an ideal that connected them to their folk, but, above all, the

warriors had to be endangering. The ability to frighten away invasions by the rumours

of their warriors is perchance how the narrative of Beowulf foremost surfaced. This is

where Beowulf & # 8217 ; s size and strength become a valuable property to the society. He

is the prototype of pure strength and power. He is besides a adult male who is the first

narrative in which our hero is Christian. In the narratives before Beowulf, like The

Odyssey and The Aenied, the narratives are between work forces and Gods on an even playing

field [ Earth ] , but different degree of participants. It would be like a hoops game

between high school participants and NBA participants. No longer are the events happening

between the Gods and work forces, alternatively we have the ace human versus those of the

evil kingdom.

Beowulf becomes more complex as a warrior, and a character who

transforms throughout the narrative: To you I will now set one petition, Royal

Scylding, Shield of South Danes, one sole favour that you will non deny me, dear

Godhead of your people, now that I have come so far, Fastness of Warriors ; that I

entirely may be allowed, with my loyal and determined crew of comrades, to

cleanse your hall Heorot As I am informed of this unpicturesque one is careless

plenty to transport no arm, so that my Godhead Hygelac, my leader in war, may you

take joy in me, I abjure absolutely the bearing of blade or screening xanthous board

in this conflict! With au naturel custodies shall I cope with the monster, battle to the

decease here, hater and hated! He who is chosen shall present himself to the

Lord & # 8217 ; s judgement ( Beowulf 64-5 ) . He is a adult male of award, and seeks that award

throughout his life. He feels that the battle shall be on even footings, of no

arms on each side. This award is another facet of the society of the times.

The thought of award to your Alliess and towns people to assist them with their demands

was existing to last in these times of invasions by other folks and caches,

and beef uping the ties taking to the forming of state provinces. He is besides a

adult male of God, with this statement, ? & # 8230 ; shall present himself to the Lord & # 8217 ; s

judgment. ? ( 65 ) He vows to direct Grendal to God for judgement on his evil workss on

Earth. Beowulf as a warrior, has two degrees to his character ; an upper degree, of

award and faith, and a lower degree of sheer emotion and power. Of these

degrees of Beowulf, we see the lower degree dominates his personality with power

and emotion ordering his actions and addresss, but subsequently in life, as male monarch,

relies more on his faith and award to order the judgement of what is right

or incorrect. No longer make the Gods of Rome and Greek mythology dictate what is

incorrect or right, with offerings to pacify the Gods. With the cognition in the

warrior for what is, and will be, incorrect, has an consequence of doing Beowulf an

extension of God. In all these Acts of the Apostless of award, Gods glorification above all is sought.

Sir Lancelot becomes the concluding touch to the development of the warrior. He is

a warrior with all the properties of the warriors before him. He has the accomplishment

of Odysseus with control of his emotions, ideas, actions, and the same pure

desire for something. He has the same award, and belief in God & # 8217 ; s counsel to

what is right as Beowulf believed. Before Lancelot, the warriors all battled the

likes of monsters, either from the will of the Gods or monsters on their ain

mission. Lancelot is a adult male who has no conflicts with superhuman existences or

statements with Gods, but a battle within himself and the battle for his desire. A

adult male possessed, he risks pride,

repute, organic structure, and psyche, all for the return of

love from his lady Guinevere. His conflicts and narratives are non all physical, as

the old warriors, but a mental victory over the assorted undertakings. Look at the

drive in the cart and the conflict within Lancelot to obtain the right determination on

what to make: Woe that he did this, and suffering that he was ashamed of the cart and so

did non leap in at one time, for he would subsequently see himself ill-fallen. Reason,

which disagrees with Love, told him to forbear from mounting in and admonished

and instructed him non to make or set about anything that could convey him dishonor

or reproach. Reason, which dared speak this manner, spoke from his lips, but non

from his bosom. But Love, which was enclose in his bosom, urged and commanded

him to mount into the cart at one time. Love achieved his desire. The knight leapt

up without concern for the shame because this was Love & # 8217 ; s will and command

( Beowulf 174 ) . Lancelot battles between his bosom and head on what pick to

brand. Yet we see Love is much more powerful in his desire, or as he says, ? Love

achieved his desire? ( 174 ) . This is non the lone instance of such a conflict in

Lancelot, and it is non ever over love. This narrative of award by Lancelot, who

saves a maiden who holds a title he does non desire to carry through. Before the dark is

long, the maiden is attacked and supplications for aid from Lancelot who thinks: Supreme being

what can I make? The object of my great chase is no 1 less than the Queen

Guinevere. Having embarked on this pursuit for her, I must follow hold the bosom

of a hare. If cowardliness gives me her bosom and I follow her regulation, I shall ne’er

make my end. I am discredited if I stay here. Merely to hold spoken of staying

brings deep shame onto me now. My bosom is sad and dark & # 8230 ; May God ne’er have

clemency on me if I speak with pride and would non instead dice with award than

shame ( de Troye 155 ) . The narrative shows the award that Lancelot has for what he

believes is right by God, although he knows by salvaging her will merely intend that he

will still hold to kip with her, which he replies? The object of my great

chase is no less than Queen Guinevere? ( 155 ) . Yet his feelings of award takes

clasp and he goes on to salvage the lady of the palace, and feels atrocious for his

vacillation. This sense of award even goes above Beowulf & # 8217 ; s honour for what was

Beowulf & # 8217 ; s desire. Lancelot holds it as something he must make even if it is

against his desire. This is an property of the society of these times. The

ideals of the society was that the knights would continue honour above all other

affairs, even affairs they disagreed with. Another facet is this desire for

courtly love with arrant devotedness to the admired and loved.

Possibly the most compelling facet of Lancelot is the act in which he

hears of the rumour that Guinevere is dead. He becomes so sorrowful that he


& # 8230 ; My wellness is good, but you have struck me down. I am crushed, yet the

exclusive hurting I feel is the heartache in my bosom. This heartache is an

unwellness, so a fatal one, and I wish it to be fatal ( de Troye

165 ) , at this he attempts to perpetrate self-destruction, and fails. This act is wholly

out of love for Guinevere for which he believes is over. The? great chase?

( 155 ) for Guinevere, he believes is over, so to than will his life perish, for

his life was nil without her there. Yet, the passion he displays is nil

short of astonishing, to love so strongly to put on the line his ain personal beliefs for that

love. The last complex piece to the mystifier of the warrior, non merely personal

forfeit in clip, or your life, but the ideals and beliefs one holds discarded

for the desire to make what he wants.

Development, over clip, has shaped the thoughts and beliefs on what the warrior

holds in his journeys. That the warrior narratives started with a adult male seeking to

return place, to a adult male giving his beliefs for the love of a adult females. The

desires of these warriors have been that of edifice blocks. Each one physique to

the following ideal. Yet we see that all the desires were pursed with a continuity

unexcelled throughout literature and history. These work forces were able to contend

unsurmountable odds to accomplish what they deemed valuable. It is the act of

something no 1 would be able to dispute. Take the illustration of Lancelot and

Sir Gawain, during The Knight in the Cart. Sir Gawain is praised as a baronial, and

a Valiant knight, while Lancelot is presented as a less knight than Gawain.

Lancelot & # 8217 ; s forfeit of his ain beliefs merely prove that these were Acts of the Apostless above

those of a normal individual, even Sir Gawain, a higher more baronial individual than most,

would non give as Lancelot. A perfect illustration of this is the cart scene in

which Sir Gawain approaches the cart and sees Lancelot in the cart ; ? Sir Gawain

galloped after the cart, and seeing the knight sitting in it, was amazed & # 8230 ; He

would surely non mount in the cart, he said, it would be base in extreme to

trade a Equus caballus for a cart? ( de Troye 151 ) , he was non ready to give the same

as our hero Lancelot. These Acts of the Apostless by Lancelot could be parallel to those of

Beowulf and his physical battles and forfeits throughout his narrative. Or that of

Odysseus and the long journeys he had to digest to acquire to his fatherland.

The most dramatic facet of these warriors is the complexness of the

characters themselves. We see that the travels of Odysseus is strictly for his

return for place, and return to the community he loves. He has no realisation

that he is anything else nor does he alter his mentality on life from his

journeys. Odysseus stays the same from get downing to stop of the narrative even though

clip has taken many old ages from him. The narrative of Beowulf has a different

development over the narrative. We watch as Beowulf transforms from a powerful immature

adult male who will travel out and contend all ;

Had they non seen me come place from battles where I had bound five

Giants-their blood was upon me- cleaned out a nest of them? Had I non

crushed on the moving ridge sea snakes by dark in narrow battle, broken animals?

( Beowulf 64 ) . A adult male almighty among work forces, and yet he changes from the

materialistic, to the male monarch, against his wants but what the town people most coveted

from him. This transmutation from a adult male who helped people, for his ain pleasance

and award, to a adult male who becomes helper of the people, non to the people. Last we

have the alteration of a adult male who risks decease by contending, and running after

Guinevere and her gaining control & # 8217 ; s on pes, and so sacrifices his ain beliefs to be

following to his love. He starts out as a adult male possessed to salvage Guinevere. To a adult male

who is controlled, wilfully, by Guinevere. Take the illustration of the battle

between Meleagant and the fillet of the first battle:

..The last words she uttered, & # 8216 ; To demo you my gratitude, I will Lancelot to

arrest, & # 8217 ; had barely left he lips when he would non put a manus on his

opposition or do a move, even if Meleagant were to kill him ( de Troyes

162 ) . He would non support himself for the interest of interrupting this devotedness to his

love! A old line in the text points out why Lancelot would make such an

action during a conflict, A lover is obedient ; when he is wholly in love, he

performs his darling & # 8217 ; s pleasance thirstily and quickly. Thus Lancelot, who loved

more than Pyramus- if love more than any adult male could- was compelled to follow ( de

Troyes 162 ) . Such a power dominates his every thought minute, even during the

battle for his life and the life of those captured. This development of the

warrior is one, near to the transmutation of the King Beowulf to his people,

but more complex. Whereas our hero Beowulf still sacrifices himself for his ain

award and to assist his people. The actions of Lancelot start as a adult male of

single position to one who is immersed in his devotedness to the 1 he loves.

We are to understand that these properties and actions our warriors have,

are those which each society saw as expansive and fantastic that all should endeavor

for in their society. The strong sense of the fatherland to Odysseus is what the

Hellenics were to endeavor for in the edifice of their imperium around the chief

fatherland of Athens. We see the properties of Beowulf as of import to the dark

ages and the invasions of the Franks where our most of import undertaking seen for the

warrior in the civilization was to support your cache from all invasion, immorality or

homo. That the forfeit for the cache was the most honest thing you would

of all time be able to accomplish in your life-time to the cache. Last we have Lancelot,

who shows the properties most liked during this society is that of courtly love,

award, and the devotedness one gives to their psyche mate, with the relinquishment of

his positions for that of his lady & # 8217 ; s wants. ? he performs his darling & # 8217 ; s pleasance

thirstily and quickly? ( de Troyes 162 ) . The actions are fulfilled with avidity

and quickly for the love of the individual. Although each one has been similar in

the manner they are exultant in there quest, and the work forces continue to look tough

through all actions, the quality they start to demo, subtly, is that of

compassion and willingness to assist all people, even if it circumvents their ain

desire temporarily.

The patterned advance of society from the clip of less diversified antediluvian

Grecian civilization, to the detonation of diverseness in folks and people, making

individualities and organizing the basis for state provinces, the warriors desires

and properties besides rose from a individual thought or end, to that of complex

characters and values. Where the complexness involved the thoughts of Torahs

refering to all. These Torahs, unwritten, developed through Beowulf, and latter

in The Knight in the Cart, as that of award. Overall, the development of

characters became a manner of projecting the proper ideals on the society to continue.

This became the nexus between the warriors and the civilisations they represented.

Plants Cited

Boyle, Doebler, Lopez-Lazaro and Wright. Hum 301. Tempe AZ. Alternative transcript

store, 1996

Homer. The Odyssey. Trans. Robert Fitzgerald. New York: Vintage Classicss,


Unknown. Beowulf. Trans. Michael Alexander. New York: Penguin Books, 1973.

Virgil. The Aeneid. Trans. Robert Fitzgerald. New York: Vintage Classicss,