The Clock Stopped Essay, Research Paper
This clock stopped at 8:15 am the forenoon of August 6, 1945 when America released the fatal forces of an atomic bomb on Hiroshima. Unfortunately the proprietor of this ticker, Kengo Futagawa, was awfully burned and mortally wounded by the atomic forces as he stood merely 1600 metres from the point of impact. Sad deceases like Futagawa? s are commemorated each twelvemonth by assorted Anti-Atomic Warfare organisations that try to distribute the pragmatism and the desolation of Atomic Warfare through the told histories of single Hiroshima victim? s horrific narratives. They, the people of Hiroshima paid an atrocious monetary value as do many victims in the clip of warfare, but their narrative is different because it was a monetary value that did non necessitate to be so heavy. Due to ruthless war tactics, carelessness, and subterranean motivations America, the power of peace, used inordinate force on Japan when it dropped the atomic bomb on Hiroshima.
There are many ways to cruelly explicate America? s actions in this affair ; such as retaliation, or merely a quickened terminal to the war, but the field truth is the A-Bombing of Hiroshima could hold been easy avoided. If the determination to bomb or non to bomb was placed entirely on the menace of Japan at the present clip of the determination anyone could see that atomically bombing Hiroshima was unneeded and by all agencies should hold been used as a last resort.
Scientist, Botanist, and Godhead of the theories behind the Atomic Bomb, Leo Szilard and 58 others protested against the usage of Atomic Bombs in the war against Japan by composing a missive to the President of the United States. The request respectfully asked that the usage of this new arm be used in a last resort. An extract from the request clearly states their purposes. ? The war has to be brought quickly to a successful decision and the devastation of Nipponese metropoliss by agencies of Atomic bombs may really good be an effectual method of warfare. We feel, nevertheless, that such an onslaught on Japan could non be justified in the present fortunes. We believe that the United States ought non to fall back to the usage of atomic bombs in the present stage of the war, at least non unless the footings which will be imposed upon Japan after the war are publically announced and later Japan is given an chance to surrender. ? ( Dannen pg. 2 )
Unfortunately, this position was non shared by the determination shapers, aconfined group of work forces ; ? merely about a twelve, high authorities functionaries, military advisors, and Scientist who were appointed by President Truman to assist rede in the amazing determination of whether and where the bomb would be dropped. ? ( Fogelman pg.2 ) The recommendations of this commission and above all the advice of Secretary of War Stimson, confirmed President Truman? s ain strong belief that usage of an atomic bomb against Japan would be necessary to convey the war to a rapid terminal. However, it seemed as if the rapid terminal Truman was so urgently seeking was around the corner. With America? s really strong air foraies, and a strong stranglehold on Nipponese importing systems, Japan was already madly looking for a manner to give up.
America? s strong air foraies were due to? Area Bombing, ? an air raid tactic that the U.S. Airforce adopted from the Germans in their war against England, sought non to hit specific marks, but struck instead at whole metropoliss, killing 1000s of citizens. They aimed to? de-house? enemy industrial workers, interrupt the enemy war attempt, crush enemy morale, and finally direct the enemy into entry. With this ruthless maneuver in topographic point the? Americans had already killed good over half a million Nipponese civilians by? Area Bombing? attempts, possibly about a million. This was before atomic arms were even ready for use. ? ( Long pg.4 )
While Japan was being bombarded from the sky, a naval encirclement was strangulating Japan? s ability to import oil and other critical stuffs and its ability to bring forth war stuffs. Admiral William Leahy, the Chief of Staff to President Roosevelt and so to President Truman, wrote, ? By the beginning of September [ 1994 ] , Japan was about wholly defeated through a practically complete sea and air blockade. ? ( Long pg. 3 )
The most distressing facet in the existent determination of the bombardment of Hiroshima relies on the Postdam Conference and its declaration for peace issued to the Nipponese from the Postdam by the United States, Great Britain, and China as an ultimatum to? complete and arrant devastation? . Two characteristics of Thursday
is Postdam Declaration are particularly controversial: foremost, the absence of expressed reference of the new atomic arm ; and, second the absence of an expressed warrant that the Japanese Imperial System would be preserved. Critics of the declaration have maintained that, if the Nipponese leaders had been specifically warned about the at hand atomic onslaught and if they had been assured that their Emperor would stay on his throne during the business, so resignation would hold followed without the bombardment of Hiroshima.
Before the Atomic Bomb was dropped, May 28, 1945, Herbert Hoover visited President Truman and suggested a manner to stop the Pacific war rapidly: ? I am convinced that if you, as President, will do a short-wave broadcast to the people of Japan-tell them they can hold their Emperor if they surrender, that it will non intend unconditioned resignation except for the militarists- you? ll acquire peace in Japan- you? ll have both wars over. ? ( Long/quotes pg.2 )
Unfortunately this advice given by Herbert Hoover was non followed and in the terminal the conditional resignation was given to Japan anyhow. The Emperor kept his topographic point in the thrown during the business. If this is true, why did the Atomic Bombing take topographic point? Japan was evidently beaten and seeking to give up to footings that the United States was willing to hold to! Were at that place subterranean motivations to the bombardment? And if so, what could the U.S. addition by bombing Hiroshima? Could it hold been retaliation for Pearl Harbor? s desolation, or possibly an even further motivation, the ability to demo Russia America? s amazing power.
Many found the retaliation of atomically bombing Hiroshima satisfying, irrespective of the loss of extra American lives spent to accomplish it. Truman reflected this feeling in a wireless broadcast to the populace on the dark of August 9, after an atomic bomb had been exploded upon the Nagasaki public: ? Having found the bomb we have used it. We have used it against those who attacked us without warning at Pearl Arbor, against those who have starved and beaten and executed American captives of war, against those who have abandoned all pretence of obeying international Torahs of warfare? ( Long/quotes pg. 10 )
Yet another subterranean motivation for the Atomic Bombing of Hiroshima can be proven. Incredible as it might look, it was to do a point to the Soviet Union. Vannevar Bush ( Chief Aide for atomic affairs to Stimson, the Secretary of State for War ) confirmed this when he said that the bomb was: ? delivered on clip so there was no necessity for any grants to Russia at the terminal of the war. ? ( Bloomfield pg. 4 )
The US did non desire the Soviet Union to be involved in the anticipated? last push? land invasion of Northern China, since this would set it in a good place to exercise influence in the country one time belligerencies ceased. The US hence attempted to stop the combat before the Red Army entered Chinese district but did non accept Nipponese moves to give up, go forthing President Truman confident about completing the war in the Far East with every bit small aid from Russia as possible.
Ultimately, the atomic bombardment of Hiroshima was non needed in America? s attempt to win over Japan, nevertheless, due to a sense of retaliation and self-importance, America? s leaders saw it justifiable in their determination. So the inquiry comes to whether or non retaliation is right or incorrect? In a clip of war this issue can go progressively clouded due to high tensenesss and hardened emotions. Defending or think ofing America? s determination does non work out history, but recognizing that war in itself is a gratuitous attempt, and that gratuitous lives will ever be lost on both sides of the lines can surely assist to deter future war attempts.
Fogleman, Edwin. Hiroshima ; The Decision to Use The A-Bomb. Ed. Martin Steinmann, Jr. New York: Scribner Research Anthologies. 1964. Pg.1-75.
Tsuchida, Hiromi. Hiroshima Collection. Ed. Mayu Tsuruya
Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.lclark.edu/~history/HIROSHIMA/photos 3-4.html
Danne, Gene. Szilard request Version 1 July 3, 1945. ( damneng @ peak.org 1995-1996 ) ? Atomic Bomb Decision? Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.peak.org/~danneng/decision/43-07-03.html.
Long, Doug. Hiroshima: Was it Necessary? Mercury.net
Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www./~dlong/index.html
Bloomfield, Janet Why the atom bomb wasn? t necessary to stop the war. Chair of the Campaign for atomic Disarmament. Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.oneworld.org/news/world/bloomfield.html