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The water scarcity issue is when there is an inadequate availability of water or no access to an improved water source for people to do daily tasks such as drinking, bathing, and cooking, etc. In fact, 1.1 billion people worldwide lack access to water and 844 million people lack access to clean water (“Global Water Sanitation”). Water scarcity is a major global problem caused mainly by an impoverished economy, poor infrastructure, climate change, agriculture using water wastefully, and pollution (“Water”; “Water Scarcity”). The many negative impacts this issue is associated with are disease, death, lack of education, wasted time, hunger, and the repeating cycle of poverty (“Water”; “Water Scarcity”). Disease is associated with this issue due to unsanitized drinking water, which can often times lead to death from waterborne diseases such as diarrhea and cholera (source) . Since children are responsible for collecting water for their families, they usually will not have the time and energy to learn, causing a loss of educational opportunities (“Global Water Sanitation”). Hunger is another problem associated with water scarcity, because there is difficulty in growing, preparing, and preserving food. Also, since the lack of sanitized water and poverty reinforce each other, the cycle of poverty repeats (“Poverty and Water”). Water scarcity, one of the main global issues caused by an impoverished economy, inadequate infrastructure, climate change, pollution, and unsustainable management of water causes disease, death, lack of education, wasted time, hunger, and the repeating cycle of poverty.  Globally, 844 million people worldwide lack access to clean water. This makesat is one in ten people who cannot accomplish daily tasks that requireusing water (“Statistics-Water Aid”). This issue is significant in developing countries such as Sub-Saharan Africa, Southern Asia, India, and the Middle East (“Statistics”; “India Water Crisis”; “Water In Crisis – Middle East”). In these regions, there areis not nearly enough sources of water or clean water available for people to use. This is caused by harsh climates, limited financial resources, lack of hygiene practices, pollution, lack of education, and population growth (source?). Harsh climates in these areas cause droughts and water supply to shrink since water demand will be higher for communities as well as for agriculture. Even if there is some supply of water, in order to maintain water sources and build sanitation facilities, financial resources are required. However, because areas like this have limited financial resources, it is difficult to build and maintain these facilities, leading people into relieve themselves in rivers, lakes, and other large bodies of water. Drinking water is then contaminated since people start to use the same water source for drinking, bathing, and defecation. Disease and death will then be more common due to dehydration, lack of hygiene practices, and unsanitized water. Along with that, pollution is a large contributing factor as wastewater from agriculture and raw sewage are flowing into natural bodies of water but nothing can be done about it because of limited financial resources (“Water In Crisis – Spotlight Africa”). Drilling for underground water and monitoring water is a heavy cost that these regions cannot afford (“Water In Crisis – Spotlight Africa”). Rapid population growth means that there needs to be more accessible water, yet due to the decrease in amount of clean water, the problem only becomes more severe. Every human has the right to water and sanitation, but considering these problems, the amount of freshwater will only decrease while the demand for it increases. Nonetheless, regions such as Israel, and Singapore also face challenges in regard to water supply, but are still able to handle this issue fairly well (“Experts Name the Top 19 Solutions to the Global Freshwater Crisis”; “Singapore Water Story”). Israel invented a drip irrigation system, educates children on how to save water, and developed innovative ways to recycle waste water, store rainwater and desalinate water (“What Other Nations Can Learn from Israel’s Solutions to the Scarce Water Challenge”). Like Israel, Singapore is also trying to “recycle to cut water imports and become more self-sufficient…Improve irrigation and agricultural practices” (“Experts Name the Top 19 Solutions to the Global Freshwater Crisis”). As these countries continue to establish water saving technologies, they are able to share these technologies with other countries or regions to help them as well. Their governments also promote these technologies by sharing it abroad, potentially helping millions of people (“Experts Name the Top 19 Solutions to the Global Freshwater Crisis”; “Singapore Water Story”). If these issues are not taken care of soon, matters could get worse.Again, not only does water scarcity and unsanitized water cause disease, death, lack of education, wasted time, and hunger, it also results in the repeating cycle of poverty. “Currently, there are 2.4 billion people worldwide, who do not use improved sanitation (a facility that safely separates human waste from human contact)” (“Water”). Without these sanitation facilities, people will then practice defecation in open areas, making their drinking water faecally contaminated. Drinking contaminated water causes diseases related to water and or poor hygiene such as Buruli Ulcer, Guinea Worm Disease, and Trachoma, some of which can be extremely painful and deadly (“Global Water, Sanitation, & Hygiene”). Sickness caused by contaminated water decreases the energy level of people, hindering their productivity. Children miss out on educational opportunities because of these water borne diseases and those who have to care for them will not be able to work or learn as well. Especially since children and infants have weak immune systems they are more susceptible to diseases. In fact, “1 out of every 5 deaths under the age of 5 worldwide is due to a water-related disease” (“Health and Water”) On top of this, children, as well as women, are accountable forto retrievinge water for their families which are miles away from their home, taking up to 6 hours of their day  (“The Water Crisis”). All of this relates back to the cycle of poverty considering the fact that disease, wasted time, and loss of educational opportunities are keeping people out of the workforce. Regardless of these difficulties, governments and organizations are striving to improve this situation.Governments, nations, international authorities and private groups are all conducting ways to deal with water scarcity and inadequate water sanitation systems. Governments of individual nations such as Northern Africa, Central Asia, Western Asia, and Eastern Asia, Israel, and Singapore are establishing innovative water saving technologies along with reducing open excretion rates (source?). Not only are these nations teaching children at a young age to conserve water, they also recycle waste water and collect rainwater to use for agricultural irrigation and desalinating water. As a matter of fact, “The drip irrigation system, invented in Israel… is responsible for 90% of agricultural irrigation. In contrast, the percentage in the U.S. is some 5%” (“What Other Nations Can Learn from Israel’s Solutions to the Scarce Water Challenge”). As can be seen, this is a very effective method of water conservation which can be used by many other countries. To promote these technologies abroad, their government is supporting this by joining forces with several other government ministries (“What Other Nations Can Learn from Israel’s Solutions to the Scarce Water Challenge”). Additionally, international authorities such as the World Wide Fund for Nature, the United Nations, and the World Health Organization have also been managing water resources, protecting water related ecosystems, as well as promoting water and sanitation related programmes to combat this issue. The World Wide Fund for Nature works alongside partners such as local communities and businesses to progress in the study of water conservation, to protect natural habitats, wetlands and also promoting the adaptation to climate change (“Water Scarcity”). Along with that, the United Nations are using integrated science to strengthen water management (“Science and technology can help tackle key sustainable development challenges”). The World Health Organization is also improving water sanitation services, and provides people with clean water and toilets (“Water, Sanitation and Hygiene”). Furthermore, private groups, particularly Charity:Water, Water.org, and Puremadi receive donations that go straight to clean water technologies, they create water filtering devices, build wells, as well as educating the public on the importance of good hygiene practices. In Charity:Water, “100% of the nonprofit’s public donations go directly to clean water technologies that range from wells to water filtration”(“7 Water Organizations You Should Know Clean water as a right, not a privilege”). Not only that, they also offer many opportunities for volunteering and fundraising which spreads the message of this issue. Water.org, another nonprofit organization, educates the public and holds training seminars on better hygiene practices along with working with local organizations to build wells (“7 Water Organizations You Should Know Clean water as a right, not a privilege”). Puremadi used local materials to create a ceramic water filter combined with a water purification tablet called MadiDrop that would purify water effectively (“7 Water Organizations You Should Know Clean water as a right, not a privilege”). These governments, organizations, and groups all have innovative and creative ways to help reduce the problem of water scarcity and unsanitized water.As shown above, water scarcity is an extreme issue that affects millions of people around the world. Without clean water resources, disease, death, lack of education, wasted time, hunger, and the repeating cycle of poverty will continue to worsen. This is all due to an impoverished economy, poor infrastructure, climate change, agriculture using water wastefully, and pollution. This global issue may be difficult to solve, however currently, governments, nations, international authorities, as well as private groups, are all conducting ways to deal with limited water supply and inadequate water sanitation systems.  Not to mention that they also conduct water conservation programmes, educate the public on new hygiene habits, find innovative ways to recycle water, protect water related ecosystems, and develop water filtering devices. With these new technologies of water conservation and effective methods of spreading the message, they are able to help millions of struggling families as well as individuals have an adequate supply of clean water to not only survive but also to perform daily tasks.

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