The addressing future intentions. It explains that

The book ‘The Little Book of
Restorative Justice’ is written by Howard Zehr. Zehr is an American
criminologist that transformed understandings of justice through his
bestselling book, “The Little Book of Restorative Justice.” Restorative justice
consists of several practices and programs that are intended to provide an
alternative to one’s thinking concerning wrongdoing; Zehr refers to this as
“changing lenses.” The western legal and criminal justice system
insufficiently contribute to peace and the healing process of offenders,
victims and the community as a whole. In addition, justice professions such as
lawyers and prison staff are expressing senses of frustration towards the
system due to the fact that they find the process deepens societal wounds.
Restorative justice addresses these limitations and needs the western legal and
criminal system lack. Several programs and approaches of restorative justice
are offered as choices alongside the current legal system to transform and
resolve conflicts. Moreover, this book is a brief overview of restorative
justice and its practices and programs. It focuses primarily on the philosophy
of restorative justice regarding its needs and roles. The philosophy of
restorative justice is based on an idea of understanding wrongdoing; Zehr explains
this idea as “Crime is a violation of people and of interpersonal
relationships. Violations create obligations. The central obligation is to put
right the wrongs (Zehr 17).” The three subsections of this book are
‘Restorative Principals’, ‘Restorative Practices’, and ‘Is It Either/Or.’ The
first section examines restorative justice such as its three pillars (harms,
needs, engagement) and principals. This section defines the goals of
restorative justice, signposts, and introduces the restorative lens that is
intended as guidelines when referring to crime and justice. The second section
examines restorative practices that include three things that are required to
occur in order to resolve wrongdoing. The three things are acknowledging the
wrongdoing, equity being restored, and addressing future intentions. It
explains that participants or style of facilitation can differ; an example of
this is transitional programs versus healing and therapeutic programs. The
third section is titled is it either/or that includes the differences and
similarities between restorative justice, retributive justice, and criminal
justice. Lastly, this section includes a metaphor to explain the
restorative justice movement using a river and a spring. An example of
restorative justice is exemplified in Cachene’s story. Cachene served his last
sentence in 2012 and found the transition back into his community difficult. Cachene
says, “When I got out of that prison I couldn’t fit into

 society. It was so scary (”
He then participated in a restorative justice program to make the transition
more manageable and integrate back into society. Cachene says that attending
CoSA and recovery programs helped him “hang on” and he now gives back to
his community and shares his stories with intentions to deter people from going
down a similar criminal path as he did.

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Primary source #2

Youth Justice Approaches

This comparative analysis of youth
justice is a report prepared from the Ontario Review of the Roots of Youth
Violence by Tullio Caputo and Michel Vallée. This paper is an overview of the Young
Offenders Act (YOA), Juvenile Delinquents Act (JDA), and the Youth Criminal
Justice Act (YCJA). In this discussion, it considers questions relating to the
development of youth justice, examines Canadian provinces that implemented the
YCJA, it discusses Canadian data and statistics on the operation of the youth
justice system, and an overview of the western nations youth justice systems to
compare to Canada’s system. Several methodologies are used in order
to complete this research paper such as a focused review of relevant
literature/related documents and in-depth Interviews with key informants. The
specific objectives of this research paper are, “Provide a synopsis of the development of
Canadian youth justice legislation since the 1970s. Provide a synopsis of the
youth justice approaches used in recent years in Alberta, British Columbia,
Ontario, and Quebec. Compare the approaches taken in these four jurisdictions
with respect to their relative capacity to reduce the rate of violent crime
involving youth. Compare Canada’s legislative approaches with those of four western
nations with broadly comparable systems of juvenile justice (”
There are two subsections within this paper regarding a synopsis of the major
changes that have been made to Canada’s youth justice legislation (CYJL) since
the 1970s and an overview of how various Canadian provinces have implemented
the YCJA.