three studies combined show proof that reading and writing depend on connected
mental processes and the same knowledge, but the link is different and depends
on the age or grade. The correlation most notable between the two are important
at every developmental stage (such as phonological–orthographic development in
the early stages of literacy learning). This says that it would be most
efficient to teach reading and writing together rather than wait till reading
comprehension is done then start writing skills like in American education.
Reading and Writing Differences
there is a correlation between these two which is very obvious yet isn’t very clear.
Reading and writing are very much linked but are cognitively very separate as
well and could be taught without the other, yet even with variables at a large
number connecting them (Shanahan, 1984), The variance level was only about .50.
This connection is seen as closer than the one identified by two other studies,
but is less than what was thought from researchers and theoreticians. Though
there is a huge level of shared mean in reading and writing and its measures, there
is no proof that the use of more measurements will give them a higher
correlation. Studies show that the use of specific areas of knowledge from
different groups to see if the use of knowledge was separable this also including
individuals with brain injuries. (Beaton, Guest, & Ved, 1997; Boget &
Marcos, 1997; Chan, 1992; Niemi, Poskiparta, Vaurus, & Maeki, 1998). The
study found people lacking writing skills yet could read or vice versa. Stotsky
(1983) and Tierney (1983) found groups of writers, with poor reading and poor writers,
with reading skills. This has been done for readers and spellers as well
Students who have experienced
brain injuries or can (for unknown reasons) write well and read poorly or the
other way around, leads to showing that these two process could be separated. Further
research between this gives reason for these two being similar yet different.
Langer (1986), analyses of many procedures and metacognition variables, have
found reading and writing to be similar yet had different cognitive starting points
which stopped them from being totally connected. A writers writing restrict a
reader’s view with their words, writers do not have these types of restrictions
and, so can select from many points. Another one is sees the difference between
recognizing words and spelling (Cronnell, 1970; Ehri, 1997). The idea of
sound–symbol relation is a connection of letters while having a different way
to say it, and is clearly important if an individual starts with a phoneme or
grapheme. Like the /sh/ sound which is a phoneme is spelled in many different
ways, such as ch (champagne), s (sugar), sh (shoes), si (impression), and
ti (fiction). This means an author using /sh/, can choose from 5 options
to write with, but the reader, starting with sh, only has one phoneme as
their choice. Moving from writing to reading or vice versa is not like going in
reverse. The functional starting points are different and need to be done in different
ways. Reading is seen as an easier skill than writing and use of identical
memories does not make their process the same.
The difference between reading
and writing is just as importance as its similarities (Shanahan, 1988). These
two aren’t really the same if they were then it would make sense to teach only one
of them. Teaching one could then possibly transfer the skill to the other and
there wouldn’t be a need to teach the other. They have been taught in such a
way that everything used in writing achievements would be taught through
reading but this since these two are only related — different instructions and
tasks are needed to teach each.
cognitive difference might be one reason why they could combine can help with
critical thinking (Tierney, Soter, O’Flahavan, & McGinley, 1989). New
learning can come from reading and writing and its different cognitive
processes. For example writing a text helps an individual in rethinking which
provides more than just rereading. Reading and writing support each other but
are not the same which is the reason for this.