Steroids Essay, Research Paper
The Performance-Enhancing Supplement Controversy
The usage of performance-enhancing addendums among jocks should be banned
from all athletic athleticss and competition, in that it provides an unjust
advantage over other jocks seeking to stand out of course. Performance-enhancing
drugs are a controversial subject in today? s society, which are presently under
Performance-enhancing drugs are substances, which are used to excite
certain countries of the organic structure to do an athlete excel in a certain event. A
public presentation heightening addendum is defined by Edward Dolan in his book Drugs
and Sports as? any substance or method used to heighten athletic public presentation? .
The most common signifier of performance-enhancing addendums are called steroids.
Harmonizing to Hank Nuwer in his book Steroids, steroids are anabolic drugs that
construct growing endocrines that include the androgens ( male sex endocrines ) chiefly
testosterone and estrogen and progestins ( female sex endocrines ) . Steroids were
foremost developed for medical intents. Steroids are compounds that are necessary
for the well being of many life animals, including human existences. These
include sex endocrines, bile acids, and cholesterin ( Nuwer 17 ) . Steroids are used
in the medical field to handle many complaints, and this usage is non the usage, which
is presently under contention. As steroids entered the mainstream after their
historic debut in the 1930? s to assist patients undernourish due to the
war and disease, they evolved into something understood by more than the
prime-time college or Olympic-bound jock as John Papanke studies in Sports
Illustrated. The medical utilizations of steroids are to handle anaemia, asthma, anorexia,
Burnss, enteric upsets, and much more ( Nuwer 15 ) . These types of steroids
are called cortical steroids.
In add-on to the medical usage, another intent of steroids and
performance-enhancing drugs are that they are used by jocks to derive an unjust
advantage over their rivals, or utilize them to maintain up with the competition
since so many jocks are utilizing these types of drugs. These coveted effects
scope from increasing musculus size and strength, to diminishing weariness, supplying
speedy impermanent weight addition, suppressing growing, and even simple hurting alleviation ( Lupica
24 ) . Performance-enhancing drugs are taken in a assortment of different ways. The
two most common ways these drugs are taken, are orally in a pill signifier, or
injected into the organic structure with a acerate leaf. The most common sort of
performance-enhancing drugs are Nelvar, Deca-Durabolin, Anavar, Stanzolol,
Dianabol and Anadrol-50 ( Nuwer 19 ) . These drugs are much more unsafe so
legal public presentation heightening drugs because the jocks take more than the
recommended doses that would be prescribed by a physician. Athletes feel that the
more pills or injections they take the stronger, faster, and the better they
will execute when viing, but this is non ever true.
The effects of steroids on the human organic structure are good recorded, they could
for good damage the bosom and liver, stunt growing and alteration sexual
features ( Green 81 ) . Performance-enhancing drugs and steroids have been
proven to be harmful to 1s wellness harmonizing to many surveies. These surveies
hold shown that steroids have been a major factor in doing liver harm,
myocardiopathy ( the have oning out of the bosom ) , icterus, purpura hepatis ( blood
filled cysts that form in the liver ) , and inauspicious affects on both the
cardiovascular system and on the generative system ( Meer 97 ) other side
affects which are shared by both sexes which include high blood force per unit area, H2O
keeping, depression, cholesterin jobs, infected daze, diarrhoea, uninterrupted
bad breath, bosom disease, yellowing of the eyes or tegument ( due to liver
jobs ) , insomnia, foetal harm for pregnant adult females, aggressive behaviour, and
of class, decease ( Bamberger 61 ) . Yet, adult females and work forces are still willing to put on the line
their wellness and their lives in order to win and remain competitory in the universe
of athleticss. These merchandises have besides been linked to doing some signifiers of malignant neoplastic disease.
Due to these jeopardies, many performance-enhancing drugs have been banned in
certain national and international athleticss, such as the NFL, NBA, ABA, WNBA, CFL,
AFL and the Olympics ( 61 ) . Although these performance-enhancing addendums are
banned, this does non intend that athletes take parting in these athleticss do non
take them, nevertheless. Professional athletic athleticss are a major country in which
performance-enhancing drugs are used. Although some people use them merely to seek
to do themselves look bigger and better, most people use them to assist maintain up
with the competition in athletic events. The usage of performance-enhancing
addendums and drugs gives the user an unjust advantage over their competition
through accomplishing strength in a shorter sum of clip. The chief intent of
performance-enhancing addendums is to acquire bigger and better faster.
Unfortunately, it is non merely the major jocks in pro athleticss and in the
Olympic gamess who use these drugs.
Performance-enhancing drugs are used in all degrees of competition today,
whether it is in the Olympics, in pro athleticss, in colleges, or even in high
schools. In our society today we have seen an addition in the sum of high
school jocks utilizing performance-enhancing addendums for the exclusive intent of
accomplishing triumph. ? Steroids usage permeates at all degrees of athleticss,
endangering the hereafters of 100s of 1000s of adolescents? ( Blair 17 ) . The
issue refering teens and performance-enhancing drugs is a quickly turning one.
Harmonizing to Nuwer in his book Steroids, about 66 % of male high school seniors
have used anabolic steroids at least one point during their short lives so far
( 65 ) . Besides, Nuwer says that & # 8230 ; medical research workers believe that between one and
three million young persons and grownups have taken anabolic steroids in one signifier or
another specifically to heighten their expressions or athletic public presentations ( 61 ) .
Athletes hear about professional jocks utilizing the drugs and they see the
difference it makes, but what they don & # 8217 ; t know or don & # 8217 ; t care about are the
long-run effects. The effects on adolescents are similar to the effects on
grownups. If a adolescent starts out utilizing at a immature age and invariably uses these
addendums, the long term side affects are more likely to be life endangering.
Over eight per centum of high bookmans use anabolic steroids ( Goldwire ) . Medical
research workers believe that between one and three million young persons and grownups have
taken anabolic steroids in one signifier or another specifically to heighten their
physical visual aspect ( Day 45 ) . Another big portion of the usage of public presentation
heightening drugs is in colleges. College jocks take a large hazard in utilizing these
types of drugs because they can endanger the scholarships that they have
worked so difficult to gain. When other jocks use public presentation heightening drugs they
can sometimes coerce a teammate to utilize. Most of the clip, the jocks on the
squad administer the drugs so that it can better the squad. A survey found that
70 per centum of users got their drugs from the black market as their drug
beginning ( Wright 52 ) . Athletes see other people taking these drugs who are
stand outing in events, interrupting records, and bulking up and they feel in order to
compete at the following degree they must make the same. Besides, many jocks are
misinformed about the dangers of performance-enhancing addendums, but on the
other manus many jocks are cognizant of the dangers and effects of taking
these foils. In professional athleticss it is really likely to see public presentation
heightening addendums while jocks are in the preparation phases before their
season begins. ? Performance-enhancing drugs in athleticss has been known for
coevalss, the users have by and large constituted a little minority of jocks?
( Nardo 24 ) .
The Olympics have been long known for holding jocks take steroids. For
old ages now, certain states such as the former Country of East Germany and the
former U.S.S.R. , every bit good as China, have had a figure of jocks who have taken
performance-enhancing addendums taking up to and during Olympic competition.
Bob Costas studies in a recent Sports Illustrated:
They? re edifice into a power, but amidst intuitions? particularly
refering their path jocks, female swimmers, and in the weight lifting
sphere entirely, Chinese adult females eclipsed every universe record in all nine-weight
categories, perchance utilizing performance-enhancing drugs ( 18 ) .
Presently there is an probe affecting managers and jocks from
Germany who competed in the 1976 Olympics. As Don Kardong studies in Smugglers
Universe: A German research worker is seeking for grounds for a condemnable test of
four managers and two physicians accused of giving steroids and other
performance-enhancing drugs to unsuspecting jocks ( 72 ) . For old ages jocks in
the Olympics have been utilizing performance-enhancing addendums that have been
banned from competition, some have non been caught but others haven? t been so
lucky. Ben Johnson was an Olympic smuggler who represented Canada. In 1988 he was
disqualified from the Olympics after winning the gold decoration in the 100-meter
elan because he tested positive for steroids. Ben Johnson was banned from the
Olympic gamess and his great calling and repute was ruined. In an article by
Michael Janofsky for the New York Times stated that medical and legal experts as
good as drug sellers estimated that at least half of the nine 1000
jocks who compete in the Olympics have used steroids ( Nardo 17 ) .
In the past three decennaries, steroids have been going a serious job more
than of all time in the athletic field. ? The usage of drugs by jocks has become a
major job: Not that drug maltreatment is anything new in athleticss, it has merely picked
up new impulse? ( Reilly 41 ) . They & # 8217 ; rhenium used in commanding redness,
beef uping weakened Black Marias, forestalling construct, and relieving symptoms
of arthritis and asthma ( Cowart 33 ) . Unfortunately research has shown that
steroids have been abused in about every sort of athletics. Although steroids
contribute to a muscular organic structure, use should stay illegal because they
physically deteriorate and mentally destruct the organic structure. ? Research workers have
noticed alterations in encephalon moving ridge activity in steroid users? ( Nardo 24 ) .
Many people are fascinated about steroids because of their ability to construct
up the organic structure. Whether taken by injection or the pill it increases strength and
endurance. ? Yes Steroids do take to the addition of musculus mass, but they besides
lead to serious jobs in the long tally? ( Alvin 64 ) . Steroids besides help in
the mending procedure of muscular tissue by first wounding them, so the musculuss
heal quicker adding more fiber increasing their majority ( Edelson 138 ) . Steroids are
besides really hard to follow because of their H2O base composing. They can go through
through the organic structure within two yearss ( 140 ) . All these benefits of steroids aid
athletes become more competitory and increase their opportunity of going a victor.
Of class everybody wants better biceps and triceps but when utilizing steroids to
accomplish this end there is a big monetary value to pay.
Steroids should stay illegal because they physically deteriorate the whole
organic structure system. In adult females steroids contribute to the growing of facial hair,
expansions of the button, shrinking of the womb, asepsis, deepening of
the voice, lessening in chest size and abnormality of the catamenial rhythm ( Meer
61 ) . In work forces steroids cause shrinking of the testiss, lessening in sperm count,
asepsis, powerlessness, prostate expansion and growing of female chest. In both
work forces and adult females hair loss, liver complaints, acne, atherosierosis and malignant neoplastic disease are
really common ( 61 ) . The side effects and reactions from the use of anabolic
steroids are eternal.
Along with the physical jobs there are besides mental reactions associated
with the use of steroids. This drug becomes really habit-forming and damaging to the
head. It causes violent episodes, which an jock can claim, a legal insanity
defence as Jonathan Harris studies in his book Drugged Athletes. Research has
besides discovered that steroids cause psychotic side effects sometimes referred to
as “ roid fury ” . Along with these are wild aggressive, contentious
behaviour, depression, languor and psychotic beliefs during and after public presentation.
Steroids mentally destroy the encephalon and ability to ground ( 139 ) . Overall the
use of steroids is really detrimental to the human organic structure. Even though it physically
physiques up the organic structure for better public presentation the hazards of use are tremendous.
Steroids physically deteriorate and mentally destruct the organic structure. The use of
steroids provides an unjust advantage to non-user jocks and therefore should
remain illegal for non-medical usage. Drugs in athleticss can be a participant his or her
scholarship ( s ) and more earnestly, their lives.
Drug testing is a manner for athleticss functionaries to screen out the users and
independently penalize them by throwing them off the squad and sometimes throw outing them
from school. Performance heightening drugs have a major impact on athleticss and
jocks. The athleticss of today are sing more jobs with public presentation
heightening drugs chiefly because of the popularity of them ( 141 ) . There are
different effects for work forces and adult females but all of the jobs are really serious.
Deriving that small spot of fight can take to greater additions in
public presentation ( 139 ) . Steroids addition musculus mass and strength which helps
jocks recover quicker from hurts ( Bamberger 62 ) . Pat Butcher studies in
the Independent that the most common athleticss where you would happen the anabolic
steroids are in anaerobic exercise, football, path & A ; field, power events, and
weight-lifting. Weight lifting has reported the highest usage with
eight-teen-percent, football ten-percent, path and field follows with
four-percent, and baseball with two-percent ( Gildea 57 ) . Cycling has besides become
a athletics where public presentation drugs are found. Cyclists used the drugs non merely in
preparation but to help them in their races giving them that excess stat mi ( Dolan 29 ) .
Athletes come up with new and different ways of utilizing drugs to heighten their
public presentation without acquiring caught. Athletes use the drugs in rhythms. They use
the drug in cycl
Es of six to twelve hebdomads, followed by three to six months of
being drug-free, this is known as cycling ( Meer 61 ) . Athletes start off with a
low dose and so bit by bit increase to the highest point of usage ; this is
called pyramiding ( 57 ) . Performance heightening drugs can either be taken orally
or they can be injected. Lyle Alzado explained, “ the injected type is
normally injected into the butt so that there are no seeable cicatrixs ” ( Harris
91 ) . Oral signifiers include Winstrol, Anavar, Dianabol, and Andro-50, which athletes
can easy o.d. on these types of drugs, which can do serious heath
hurt and/or perchance decease ( 91 ) . Many athleticss installations have regulations and
ordinances against drug usage, so the squads and organisations perform drug trials
to extinguish the drug job in the organisations. I think that the usage of drug
trials is a good thought to dispatch the participants that have a drug maltreatment job.
Athletes today have the impulse to utilize the public presentation heightening drugs to do them
egos perform at a higher degree.
Drug testing of jocks demands to go more effectual to clamp down on
addendum usage. A recent clinical study taken on the drug proving policies in
colleges shows that out of two hundred and 45 schools, merely 29
per centum of those schools reported drug testing ( Bamberger 63 ) . With all the new
drugs out on the market it is virtually impossible to hold trials that can
place all the different drugs. Athletes have come up with new ways to get away
positive proving. Many of the world-class jocks are able to set their
normal dose so they can get away sensing ( Reilly 42 ) . Harmonizing to Hank Nuwer
most of the professional conferences and the NCAA have lists of banned drugs and
In 1983, the National Basketball Association set its drug policy and it is
now viewed as the most progressive in all athleticss. The NBA has the right to
administer drug trials to participants if it feels there is a demand to. In 1988 the NBA
expanded its policy to include random drug testing of the cubs that enter the
conference in their first twelvemonth. In 1990, the NCAA instituted a really stiff policy
sing steroids. The policy states that division one-football participants must
undergo a year-round, compulsory proving for steroids on a random footing ( Nuwer
17 ) .
I think that drug testing should be a compulsory event in every college
whether or non it is an invasion of their privateness.
A changeless conflict has been fought as the International Olympic Committee
battles to maintain drug proving up-to-date and effectual. We have come to
associate drug usage with a few celebrated names of fallen heroes, such as Ben
Johnson, but few realize merely how widespread drug usage is in Olympic athleticss and
how little a per centum of wrongdoers of all time acquire caught. Recent surveies show that
increased testing processs have done small to discourage jocks from trusting on
drugs to help public presentation and that drug usage among Olympic jocks is really on
the rise ( Dolan 29 ) . Performance-enhancing drug usage is non limited to the
Olympic games. There are few athleticss that have non been affected in some manner by
drug usage. The fact is that there are legion substances presently available
with possible benefits for jocks in all athleticss. Most professional athleticss do
non hold strict proving processs for public presentation heightening drugs for the
simple facts that there are excessively many drugs to prove for, and the trials are excessively
easy to crush says Hank Nuwer. This presents the International Olympic Committee
( IOC ) with one of it? s greatest challenges ; seeking to maintain it? s drug proving
processs on par with the engineering of today? s druggists ( 63 ) . Don Kardong
studies that the IOC faces major jobs when presenting these trials:
Is that many of these drugs can be cycled, where the athlete Michigans taking
doses long plenty in front of clip so that no hint of the drug will demo up in
urine samples. Another job is the proving process itself. Samples are
tested for a list of known substances, and since new drugs have to be used and
discovered in trials before the IOC is cognizant of them and can include them on the
list, those jocks who have entree to the newest merchandises have the advantage
of utilizing drugs non yet on the banned list.
In add-on, many of these jocks harmonizing to Jeff Meer have entree to the
same hi-tech equipment used by the IOC to observe drugs, leting them to
familiarise themselves with degrees of sensing and necessary clearance times
for different drugs. This is how many jocks are able to systematically avoid
proving positive, while keeping a diverse regimen of drugs. In add-on to
the troubles involved in observing many drugs and illegal processs, Meer
feels the IOC is faced with the enormous cost involved in implementing an
across-the-board proving protocol for all jocks. In his article? The Drug
Detectives? , Mike Lupica states that the IOC? is deploying hand-picked
technicians and three $ 700,000 high-resolution mass spectrometers? to execute
drug trials at a cost of approximately $ 800 per trial ( Lupica 1 ) . Although many recent
surveies estimate that approximately 80 per centum of all Olympic jocks are presently
utilizing, or have at some clip used, some type of performance-enhancing drug, merely
a smattering have of all time been caught and punished harmonizing to Hank Nuwer? s surveies
( 23 ) . This once more points to the inefficiency of the IOC? s attempts to decrease
the prevalence of drugs in Olympic competition. Due to the deficiency of success that
the IOC has had in commanding the rampant spread of drug usage, many have asked
why they do non merely travel with the popular tendencies and legalise the usage of these
drugs in competition. While most will hold that drug usage is now rampant
throughout the Olympics, extinguishing the trials and raising prohibitions would certainly
do the usage and maltreatment of these substances to increase dramatically. If allowed
into the Olympics and other athleticss, we would certainly see a drastic rise in the
black-market. While these prohibitions are forced, jocks who chose to stay natural
and vie without drugs still have a opportunity. Raising the prohibitions would
efficaciously force all serious Olympic aspirant to take potentially unsafe
drugs. Even with the current prohibitions and proving processs, ? the chauvinistic
driving force for Olympic competition has been athletic public presentation, and because
of this relationship, athleticss medical specialty has become an built-in constituent of the
Olympic motion? ( Tipton 2 ) . Another ground why the usage of these substances
is controlled is that many substances are potentially unsafe to the wellness of
the jock. Athletes have been known to endure from liver and kidney
disfunction to assorted signifiers of malignant neoplastic disease ( Rogak 96 ) . Many of the drugs today lack
the extended testing needed to foretell possible side effects and effects
of long-run usage ( 96 ) . Many would inquire why jocks would set themselves at such
enormous hazards to both their wellness and reputes. To many jocks, these
wagess of stardom are deserving any hazard. I mean, the common slogan in athleticss is? win
at all costs? . Americans do non trust for success from their jocks, they
expect and even demand it, and? exposing the populace to the darker side of
elite-level athleticss could bring forth negative sentiments towards the Olympic Games?
( Moore 4 ) . It seems that the best program for the IOC is to go on with their
current process, and implement proving wherever possible. The IOC is directing a
message to jocks, that they are cognizant of the usage of drugs but they will ne’er
condone it, and that they will go on to implement proving in an effort to
deter the spread of the usage of addendums throughout athleticss. With
continued support and research, the IOC may someday develop proving processs
more advanced than the engineering available to the jocks. This would
hopefully extinguish the usage performance-enhancing drugs and return professional
athleticss to a flat playing field that was originally intended. Because physicians
and IOC functionaries know really small about the many types of performance-enhancing
drugs and steroids, they have yet to come up with good ways of observing them
( 61 ) . Harmonizing to Michael Bamberger and Don Yaeger of Sports Illustrated, the
merely ways the IOC can prove right now is to utilize urine trials, a gaschromato graph,
and a high-resolution mass spectrometer, yet there are many ways to short-circuit all
three of these trials ( 61 ) . Besides, Bamberger and Yaeger note that, the
sophisticated jock who wants to take drugs has switched to things we can? t
even trial for. To be caught is non easy ; it merely happens, says David Reid,
manager of the doping control centre, when an jock is either improbably
sloppy, improbably stupid, or both ( 79 ) . Another manner to deceive drug trials is to
usage particular performance-enhancing drugs, which are made particularly for one
individual to make one specific responsibility. These drugs do non hold the same chemical parts
as the 1s the IOC trials for, and hence these jocks are non normally
caught. But, these drugs are highly expensive, sometimes bing the jocks
up to $ 1,500 a month ( Bamberger and Yaeger 64 ) . Besides, legal
performance-enhancing drugs such as creatine and androstenedione, which may besides
hold inauspicious side affects, and both of which are used by professional baseball
participant Mark McGwire, are seen as drugs that help a individual to go stronger and
better, without any of the negative consequences in which some illegal
performance-enhancing drugs and steroids can convey. Young jocks have heard
and seen that established jocks whom they admire use [ performance-enhancing
drugs ] , and they want to follow the same winning waies of their heroes ( Nuwer
12 ) . Harmonizing to an article written in the October 1998 issue of People Weekly,
& # 8230 ; gross revenues of the steroid ( androstenedione ) are expected to exceed $ 100 million this
twelvemonth, up from $ 5 million in 1997 ( 144 ) . Many of these gross revenues will be from younger
jocks viing at the high school degree, unaware of the dangers of this
legal substance. Harmonizing to a USA Today report, & # 8230 ; 175,000 teenage misss in
the United States have reported taking anabolic steroids at least one time within a
twelvemonth of the clip surveyed & # 8211 ; a rise of 100 % since 1991 ( Winner A3 ) . This compares
to the estimated 325,000 adolescent male childs who presently use steroids ( A3 ) .
George Will notes that? A society? s diversion is charged with moral
significance, athleticss and a society that takes it earnestly would be debased if
it did non purely for command things that blur the differentiation between the victory
of character and the victory of chemical science? ( Edelson 139 ) . One action that
these organisations must take in the close hereafter is to pass a batch of clip and
money on the survey of performance-enhancing drugs and steroids. Therefore, they would
be able to come up with better ways to be able to prove jocks. These
ordinances are needed non merely to protect the jocks, but besides to convey some
unity back to the universe of athleticss. These jocks care merely about themselves
and make non hold adequate subject and desire to develop difficult, the honest manner
without the usage of addendums.
Alvin, Virginia, and Robert Silerstein. Steroids: Large Muscles, Big Problems.
New Jersey: Enslow Publishers, Inc. , 1992: 64-68.
August, Paul N. Drugs and Women. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1987
Bach, Julie S. , ed. Drug Abuse, Opposing View Points. St. Paul: Green oasis
Bamberger, Michael and Don Yeager. ? Over the Edge with Performance
Use. ? Sports Illustrated v86: 14 April 1997: 60-64+
Blair, Tim. ? Just Say Go To The Latest Performance Boosting Drugs
Detect, and For Many Athletes, Impossible To Resist. ? Time International
27 July 1998.
Butcher, Pat. ? Live Fast, Die Young. ? Independent 23 September 1998.
Cowart, Virginia S. ? Athletes and Steroids- A Bad Bargain?
Saturday Evening Post 11 January 1987: 30-37.
Day, Michael. New Scientist. 10 October 1998: 45-46.
Dolan, Edward F. Drugs In Sports. New York: Sports Chrome East/West, 1986:
Edelson, Edward. ? Sports Medicine. ? The Encyclopedia of Health. Chelsea
Publishers 1988: 135-141.
Gildea, William. ? Life and Drugs-In Sports Fast Lane. ? Readers Digest, 9
Green, Gary A. Drugs and the Athlete. Delaware: Medical Journal, September
Harris, Jonathan. Drugged Athletes. New York: For Winds Press, 1987: 90-91+
Hazard Alert. Peoples Weekly v50 no13: 12 October 1998: 143-144.
Jaffe, Steven L. and Dynise Balcavage. Junior Drug Awareness? Steroids?
Philadelphia: Chelsea House Publishers, 1997.
Kardong, Don. ? Cherished Medal. ? Runners World. V33 no8: August 1998
Lupica, Mike. ? The Drug Detective. ? Esquire September 1992: 23-25.
Meer, Jeff. ? Drugs and Sports. ? The Encyclopedia of Psychoactive Drugs.
Chelsea House Publishers, 1987. Vol. 2: 60-61,97.
Moore, Kenny. ? The U.S. Olympic Women Swimmers of 1976 Swept Into Montreal. ?
Sports Illustrated 13 July 1992.
Nardo, Don. Drugs and Sports. San Diego: Lucent Books, Inc. 1990: 15-24.
Nuwer, Hank. Steroids. New Jersey: Enslow Publishers, Inc. 1992: 15,17,19+
Papanke, John? Athletes or Role Models? ? Sports Illustrated 15 June 1997:
Reid, David C. ? Sports Medicine? The Sports Encyclopedia 1997: 40-47.
Reilly, Rick. ? Hey Mac, Do What Comes Natural. ? Sports Illustrated: v90
no9: 1 March
Rogak, Lisa A. Steroids: Dangerous Game. Minneapolis: Lerner Publications
Telander, Rick? The Nightmare of Steroids. ? Sports Illustrated 24 October
Tipton, Paul. ? Dope and Glory. ? Runner? s World. December 1996: 2+
Voy, Robert M. Drugs, Sports, and Politics. Plain: Leisure Imperativeness 1991.
Wadler, Gary I. And Brian Hainline. Drugs and the Athlete. Philadelphia:
Winner, Christopher P. ? Sports Doping Crisis Faces a Crossroads. ? USA
September 1998: 2A-3A.
Wright, James E. and Virginia Cowart. Anabolic Steroids: Altered States New
National Institute 1989.