According to Pamela Arlov, there are five kinds of fragments to beware of when writing. One kind of fragment is a Missing a subject fragment. To correct this type of fragment, the writer should ask if the sentence has a complete thought. If not, add to the sentence what is missing, in this case a subject that is not in a prepositional phrase. Another type of fragment is referred to as a verbal fragment. These are also referred to sometimes as–ing verb fragments, to fragments, or –ed fragments. These words appear to be verbs, but are not. To correct this type of fragment, add a verb to the sentence. Dependent clause fragments are fragments that appear to be a sentence, but begin with a dependent word such as because or however.
These fragments can be corrected by attaching them to an independent clause. Prepositional phrase fragments are fragments that begin with a prepositional phrase or hold the a noun that appears to be the subject. These types of fragments can be corrected by adding them to the sentence that follows (an independent clause). The final type of fragment is the example and exception fragment. These commonly found fragments begin with words like “for example” and “except”. They are not complete thoughts, rather afterthoughts of the previous sentence. They are most commonly fixed by adding them to the previous sentence.
Arlov, Pamela. Wordsmith:A Guide to Writing. 3rd ed. Prentice Hall: NJ. 2006.