Section [1]. This protocol has been implemented

Section One: Consider how you can ensure
private communication


With the prevalence of email in
day-to-day company life, it is important for businesses to consider ways of
ensuring privacy when sending emails; this can be implemented via email
encryption, which will distort the contents of emails so that it cannot be read
if it happens to be intercepted during transit. Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) is a
protocol that is implemented by email encryption services and it is used for
signing, encrypting and decrypting emails, texts, and other formats. PGP works
by first compressing the plain texts to add an extra barrier against
cryptanalysis, and then creating a unique session key to securely and quickly
encrypt the plain text into a cipher text 1.

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Once the data has been encrypted the public key of the recipient will be used to
encrypt the session key resulted in another key. This encrypted key along with
the cipher text will be sent to the recipient 1. Upon
receiving this message, the recipient’s private key can be used to decrypt the
session key, which will be used to decrypt the cipher text 1. This protocol has been implemented by GPG4Browsers, which is an extension for Google
Chrome that is capable of encrypting Gmail messages 7.  Companies who wish to use PGP to encrypt their
emails must ensure that both the receiver and the sender are using the same PGP


Furthermore, companies can ensure
email privacy by adopting certain easily implementable practices. For example,
companies can disable the forwarding messages feature as this will ensure that
the email contents will remain only with the intended recipients. 2. Although
this isn’t an entirely conclusive method preventing these messages from being
sent to unintended recipients, it’s a simple and effective surface-level
solution to this problem. Additionally, certain email plug-in exists (e.g.

Virtru) that can be used to revoke any message after it has been sent. This
might be useful for removing another party’s access to sensitive information
after an extended period or in the event of a contract expiry 2. Having said
this, the best methods of protecting email privacy is through email encryption,
and thus this should be implemented before any other approach.


For many company environments faxes
have been the primary means of securely and privately distributing sensitive
information mainly because they are often considered to be a more secure
communication methods than email 4. This is supported by the fact that documents
sent by fax are considered legally binding, and the ubiquity of these machines certainly
adds to this argument as it ensures that almost all companies can receive these
messages 3.  Having said this, traditional fax
machines are by no means a secure method of communication due to their usage of
unsecured phone lines, which can still be intercepted by attackers.  The introduction of electronic faxing has
resulted in a much more secure and private means of communication with all the
advantages of traditional faxing; for example, eFax is an electronic faxing
service that enable a user to send a fax through to an email inbox as well as
physical fax machine and it also uses encryption to protect the contents of the
messages sent 5. Although electronic faxing services are incredibly expensive, they are
essential secure communication mediums for companies that still require use of


Over the years there has been
drastic rise 10 in the usage of instant messaging platforms and many of these platforms
are taking great leaps to ensure that they provide the highest level of secure
communication; the popularity of secure messaging apps is continuing to grow,
probably as a response to the largescale data collection by massive
corporations. With over one billion users the most popular secure messaging app
is WhatsApp, which boasts many messaging features (e.g. GIFS, stickers) and
supports end-to-end encryption enabling private communication. Despite the
popularity of WhatsApp, one should consider using Signal for private company
communication instead. While Signal doesn’t contain as many messaging features
as WhatsApp, it is an open-source, regularly appraised and peer reviewed
platform that is more privacy-oriented seeing as it actively tries to keep
up-to-date with security threats. Furthermore, WhatsApp collects meta data
(e.g. contact, location and device information) and backs up data including
chat history to a 3rd party cloud service, which can result in
possible data breaches. WhatsApp only recently acquired the end-to-end
encryption protocol behind Signal so company employees who wish to securely
communicate via WhatsApp mush ensure that they have the most recent version 8. Because of
the many security advancements in messaging apps, companies should pursue this
method, especially the Signal platform, for communicating outside the


While the invention of the
telephone is widely considered as the most pivotal communication method ever
conceived, it has also been observed to lack security and privacy. Both
landline and mobile telephones make use of circuit switching, where ‘a complete
end-to-end circuit is established for each pair of voice and data users and
dedicated for the full duration of use’ during the call and is terminated once
the parties involved in the call decide to hang up 12. Although
this is the best method of switching for making telephone calls, it makes it
easier for hackers to intercept all the data during communication thereby
reducing the overall security of this medium. Many mobile phones utilise the
GSM network for wireless communication, which only incorporated a ‘moderate
level of security ’11; for example, GSM uses a weak A5/1 encryption
protocol and thus, it’s reasonably easy for a skilled hacker to decrypt data
intercepted whilst eavesdropping on calls ’11. Due to these reasons, it would be
in the best interests of companies to limit their use of telephones and/or
replace it with another medium.


A more secure alternative to landline
and mobile telephones that is being widely adopted in companies is VOIP
technology, which can be found in popular platforms such as Skype and Google
hangouts. VOIP technology makes use of packet switching, which will break up
the message into several packets, route each packet across the network to the
receiver through different paths, and reassemble each packet to form the
original packet at the destination. Packet switching is a more secure switching
method compared to circuit switching because the data is sent across many different
routes so it is much more difficult to intercept all the data. Additionally,
some examples of VOIP (e.g. Skype) uses secure end-to-end encryption ensure
that any packets intercepted cannot be read. Finally, many companies are
choosing to use skype and other VOIP technologies because they provide cheaper
global communication enabling international conference calls.


Section Two: Consider how you can ensure anonymous


One way of achieving anonymous communication is
through remailer software that allows users to send an email while hiding the
identity of the person who sent the email; for example, type II remailers
utilise message pooling and padding (see diagram) to attain such anonymity. Although solely
ensuring sender anonymity might be enough for some companies, others may
require use of type III remailers to completely prevent eavesdroppers from
finding out any of the parties, including the receiver, involved in the
interaction 9. These type III remailers use the same technology found in the previous
remailers alongside specialised servers that prevent users from having to use
the receivers real email address when sending the email 9. While there
are some free type II remailers such as paranoia , they tend to require specialist
knowledge to use them effectively; for example, Ultimate privacy is a highly
recommended paid remailer service that allows users to easily send anonymous
message and directly control who they appear as 14. This remailer service even
includes downloadable software that can encrypt and anonymise messages passing
through it. Companies that need to send emails anonymously should consider
using ultimate privacy.