Robert Lee Essay Research Paper Robert Edward

Robert Lee Essay, Research Paper

Robert Edward Lee is considered one of the greatest generals in the history of

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the United States. Lee was opposed to many positions of the South, including

sequence and bondage, yet his trueness to his native province of Virginia forced

him to contend for the South and garbage bid of the Union ground forcess during the

Civil War. Because of this, he was respected by every adult male in America including

Abraham Lincoln and Ulysses S. Grant. Robert Edward Lee was born to parents,

Henry Lee of Leesylvania, and mother Ann Hill Carter of Shirley, in Stratford

Hallway near Montross, Virginia, on January 19, 1807. He grew up with a great love

for state life and his province, which would be instilled in him for the remainder

of his life. He was a really serious male child and spent many hours in his male parent & # 8217 ; s

library reading as many books as he could acquire his custodies on. He loved to play

with his friends, swim and Hunt. Lee looked up to his male parent and ever wanted

to cognize what he was making. George Washington and his male parent, “ Light-Horse

Harry Lee, ” were his two heroes and he wanted to be merely like them when he

grew up. In 1811 the Lee household moved to a larger place in Alexandria, Virginia.

The following twelvemonth his male parent received hurts in a Baltimore public violence from which he

ne’er to the full recovered and that besides caused his departure of Alexandria for a

heater clime. He died six old ages subsequently at Cumberland Island, Georgia when

Robert was merely 12. Robert was forced to go the adult male of the household and cared

for his female parent and sisters because his male parent and senior brothers had left.

Robert would stuff documents to barricade clefts in the passenger car and travel driving to assist

his female parent acquire out during her failing wellness. Old ages subsequently, when Robert left for

West Point, Ann Lee wrote to a cousin, “ How will I of all time acquire on with out

Robert, he is both a boy and a girl ” (

1 ) . In 1825, at the age of 18, Lee entered the United States Military Academy at

West Point where his schoolmates admired him for his glare, leading, and

love for his work. West Point was non his first pick for a school, but at that place

was no money left to direct him to Harvard because his older brother, Charles

Carter, had used it for his ain surveies at Harvard. He graduated from the

academy with high awards in 1829 and was ranked as Second Lieutenant in the

Corps of Engineers at the age of 21. He headed for place at the age of 22 with

$ 103.58 ( Thomas 54 ) . Lee served for 17 months at Fort Pulaski on Cockspur

Island, Georgia. In 1831 the ground forces transferred Lee to Fort Monroe, Virginia, as

helper applied scientist. While he was stationed at that place, he married Mary Anna Randolph

Custis, Martha Washington & # 8217 ; s great-granddaughter. They lived in her household place

in Arlington on a hill overlooking Washington D. C.. They had seven kids,

three boies and four girls. On September 16, 1832, Mary gave birth to George

Washington Custis Lee. Subsequently in 1835 they had their 2nd kid, Mary Curtis.

They had five more kids, William Henry Fitzgerald, Annie, Agnes, Robert and

Mildred. Lee served as an helper in the head applied scientist & # 8217 ; s office in Washington

from 1834 to 1837 and spent the summer of 1835 assisting to put out the boundary

line between Ohio and Michigan. In 1837 he got his first of import occupation as a

First Lieutenant of applied scientists. He supervised the technology work for St. Louis

seaport and for the upper Mississippi and Missouri rivers. His work at that place earned

him a publicity to Captain. In 1841 he was transferred to Fort Hamilton in New

York seaport, where he took charge of edifice munitions. When war broke out

between the United States and Mexico in 1846, the ground forces sent Lee to Texas to

service as adjunct applied scientist under General John E. Wool. All his superior

officers, including General Winfield Scott, were impressed with Lee. Early in

the war, Lee supervised the building of Bridgess for Wool & # 8217 ; s March toward the

Mexican boundary line. He so did first-class work on reconnoitering trips. Lee subsequently was

assisting General Winfield Scott program a great conflict. The Army was about to assail

Vera Cruz, a big Mexican town on the sea. Soldiers fired immense guns at the

walls of Vera Cruz. One of the work forces at the guns happened to be Robert & # 8217 ; s brother,

Smith Lee. When he could, Lee went to stand by his brother & # 8217 ; s gun. “ I could

see his white dentitions through all the fume of the fire ” Lee said, in a

missive to Mary. The Mexicans shortly gave up Vera Cruz. General Scott thanked Lee

for his work. Now the Army could travel on to the Mexican capital. The March to

Mexico City would be difficult for the ground forces. General Scott asked Lee to happen the best

manner to travel and asked him to see what Santa Anna, the Mexican general, was making.

To acquire intelligence for Scott, Lee went behind the lines of enemy soldiers. This was

unsafe work. Once when Lee was behind enemy lines he heard voices. Mexican

soldiers were coming to imbibe at a spring. Lee jumped under a log while more

Mexicans came. They sat on the log and talked, so Lee had to conceal at that place until

dark ( Thomas 125 ) . At Cerro Gordo he led the first line of work forces into conflict. The

Americans won. Lee so wrote to his boy, Custis, “ You have no thought what a

atrocious sight a field of conflict is. ” Then came the biggest conflict of the

war. The Americans attacked a garrison outside Mexico City. Lee planned the onslaught

and for yearss he worked without slumber. He found out where the Mexican soldiers

were. He knew where to set the large guns which made it easier for the Army to

take the garrison. The American Army marched right into Mexico City. The war was now

officially over. Lee & # 8217 ; s technology accomplishment made it possible for American military personnels to

cross the hard mountain base on ballss on the manner to the capital. During the March

to Mexico City, Lee was promoted to brevet lieutenant colonel. Scott said that

his “ success in Mexico was mostly due to the accomplishment, heroism, and undaunted

bravery of Robert E. Lee & # 8230 ; the greatest military mastermind in America ” ( Thomas

125-128 ) . After three old ages at Fort Carrol in Baltimore seaport, Lee became the

overseer of West Point in 1852. He would hold preferred responsibility in the field

alternatively of at a desk, but he worked at his station without ailment. During his

three old ages at West Point, he improved the edifices, classs, and spent a batch

of clip with the plebes. There was one plebe, Jeb Stuart, who subsequently served as

one of Lee & # 8217 ; s best horse officers. Lee earned a really good repute during his

service at that place as a just and sort overseer. In 1855, Lee became a

Lieutenant Colonel of Cavalry and was assigned to duty on the Texas frontier.

There he helped protect colonists from onslaughts by the Apache and Comanche

Indians. Once once more he proved to be an first-class soldier and organiser. But

these were non happy old ages for Lee. He did non like to be off from his household

for long periods of clip, largely because of his married woman who was going weaker and

weaker every minute. Lee came place to see her every bit frequently as possible. He happened

to be in Washington at the clip of John Brown & # 8217 ; s foray on Harpers Ferry in 1859,

and was sent at that place to collar Brown and reconstruct order. He did this really rapidly

and returned to his regiment in Texas. When Texas seceded from the Union in1861,

Lee was called to Washington D.C. to wait for farther orders

( hypertext transfer protocol: // 1 ) Unlike many

Southerners, Lee did non believe in bondage and did non prefer sezession. He felt

that bondage had an evil consequence on Masterss every bit good as slaves. Long before the

war he had freed the few slaves whom he had inherited. Lee greatly admired

George Washington and hated the idea of a divided state. But he came to experience

that his province was protecting the really libe

rty, freedom and legal rules for

which Washington had fought. He was willing to go forth the brotherhood, as Washington

had left the British Empire, to contend what the South called a 2nd war of

independency. Lee had great trouble in make up one’s minding whether to stand by his

native province or remain with the Union, even though Lincoln offered him the field

bid of the United States Army. He wrote to his sister, ” & # 8230 ; in my ain

individual I had to run into the inquiry whether I should take portion against my native

province. With all my devotedness to the Union, and the feeling of trueness and responsibility of

an American citizen, I had non been able to do up my head to raise my manus

against my relations, my kids, my place. I have hence resigned my

committee in the ground forces, and, save in defence of my native state- with the

sincere hope that my hapless services may ne’er be needed- I hope I may ne’er be

called upon to pull my blade. ” Lee grieved at separating from the friends whom

he had served with in other wars. He served in Richmond, Virginia, as military

advisor to Confederate President Jefferson Davis, and in May, 1861 was appointed

a full general. In the autumn, he succeeded in holding a threatened invasion from

western Virginia. Subsequently, he took charge of protecting the seashore of South

Carolina against invasion. When Lee returned to Richmond in 1862, he helped pull

up programs for the Confederate forces in Virginia, so under the bid of

General Joseph E. Johnston. Johnston was wounded on May 31, 1862, in the Battle

of Fair Oaks ( Thomas 225 ) . The following twenty-four hours, Lee took bid of Johnston & # 8217 ; s ground forces,

which he called the Army of Northern Virginia. From his first twenty-four hours of bid,

Lee faced what looked like an impossible undertaking. Union General George B. McClellan

had approached within 7 stat mis of Richmond with 100,000 work forces. Three forces were

shutting in on the Confederate military personnels of General Stonewall Jackson in the

Shenandoah Valley of Virginia. A 4th Union force was camped on the

Rappahannock River, ready to help McClellan. In the series of battles, known

as the Battle of the Seven Days, Lee forced McClellan to withdraw. This run

taught Lee the demand for simpler methods and organisation. Jackson had earlier

conducted a superb run in the Shenandoah Valley, and became Lee & # 8217 ; s most

trusted subsidiary. Jackson was so devoted to Lee that he said he would follow

him into a conflict blindfolded. With Jackson & # 8217 ; s assist, Lee won a major triumph over

General John Pope in the 2nd Battle of Bull Run, in August, 1862 ( Nolan 89 ) .

He was so free to occupy Maryland. Unfortunately, McClellan intercepted a

conflict order which a Confederate staff officer had heedlessly lost. Knowing

Lee & # 8217 ; s program in progress, McClellan halted him in the Battle of Antietam

( Sharpsburg ) . Lee returned to Virginia to reorganise his ground forces, General Ambrose

E. Burnside so led an onslaught against Lee in December, 1862, at Fredericksburg,

Virginia. Fog covered the battleground early in the forenoon before the conflict

began. As it lifted and the Confederate bid saw 1000s of military personnels, Lee

remarked, “ It is good that war is so terrible- we would turn excessively fond of

it. ” Lee & # 8217 ; s military personnels defeated the Union forces, but Lee could non take

advantage of his triumph because the Northern military personnels had been excessively cleverly

placed and could fall back without interrupting any of their lines of communicating.

Lee felt that his ground forces could non win the war by contending defensively, and that

it was excessively dearly-won merely to keep the enemy without destructing it, but foremost he

had to contend yet another defensive conflict ( Nagel 179 ) . General Joseph Hooker, who

had taken over from Burnside, attacked Lee at Chancellorsville in the Spring of

1863. The Confederate forces won a great triumph, but they paid a atrocious monetary value

for it. Stonewall Jackson unluckily died at that place. He was by chance shot by

his ain work forces when he went in front of his line of conflict to reconnoiter the Union military personnels.

Determined to take the discourtesy, Lee moved into Pennsylvania and encountered the

Northern ground forces which was now under General George G. Meade, at Gettysburg. Hard

contending continued for three yearss, from July 1-3, 1863. The Confederates met

their licking in what proved to be a turning point of the war. Always generous to

those under him, Lee insisted on taking the incrimination for the failure of the

run in which the United States suffered 55,000 casualties, doing it the

bloodiest conflict in the history of the United States. In the Spring of 1864, Lee

foremost faced General Ulysses S. Grant. In a series of ferocious and really bloody

conflicts called the Wilderness Campaign, Grant pounded the ground forces of northern

Virginia to pieces with this larger army cannons and guns. Lee held out for nine

months in the besieging of Petersburg, but his tired hungry work forces eventually had to

retreat. Early on in 1865, Lee was made General in Chief of all the Confederate

ground forcess. Richmond fell in April, 1865, and Lee & # 8217 ; s ragged ground forces retreated westward.

Northern forces cut off and surrounded Lee & # 8217 ; s military personnels at Appomattox Court House,

Virginia, where Lee surrendered to Grant, on April 9, 1865. “ There is

nil left to make, but to travel see General Grant, and I would instead decease a

1000 deceases ” . Grant tried to do the resignation every bit easy as possible,

and allowed the Confederate military personnels to take their Equus caballuss place for Spring ploughing.

As Lee made his last sit down the lines on his celebrated Equus caballus Traveler, he told

his ground forces, “ Work force, we have fought through the war together. I have done my

best for you ; my bosom is excessively full to state more. ” Lee & # 8217 ; s licking at Appomattox

Court House, Virginia, marked the terminal of his superb military calling ( Nolan

121 ) At the terminal of the Civil War Lee set an illustration for all of the

Ex-Confederate soldiers and officers, by his refusal non to demo resentment to

the Union. “ Abandon your animuss, and do your boies Americans ” .

He than set out to organize a lasting and stable brotherhood of the

provinces ( 2 ) . On June 13, 1865, Robert E. Lee applied

for a forgiveness from the United States authorities. When Robert returned to his place

in Arlington, he found it had been turned into a national graveyard as penalty

to him for abandoning the Union and contending against them. Robert E. Lee than

applied for citizenship to the United States. His citizenship documents were

misplaced and in 1975, a century subsequently, Robert E. Lee was awarded citizenship in

the United States. Lee had worked indefatigably for a strong peace in the United

States. On August 4, 1865, Robert was elected to President of Washington

College, Lexington, Virginia. He hesitatingly accepted, and endeavor to fit

pupils with the character and cognition necessary to reconstruct the war ravaged

south. On February 4, 1867, Robert E. Lee declined to be a campaigner for

governor of Virginia ( 3 ) . Then in 1870, Robert

E. Lee went to Georgia in hunt of good wellness. Sadly on October 12 Robert E.

Lee died of bosom jobs in Lexington. After his decease, his name was joined

with that of his womb-to-tomb hero, and Washington College became Washington and Lee



Thomas, Emory M. Robert E. Lee A Biography. New York: W.W. Norton & A ;

Company, 1995. Nagel, Paul C. The Lees of Virginia. New York: Oxford University

Imperativeness, 1990. Nolan, Alan T. Lee Considered. Chapel Hill: The University of North

Carolina Press, 1991. Saundra N. “ Robert E. Lee ”

hypertext transfer protocol: // ( 23 March 1999 )

Robert E. Lee Memorial Association. “ Robert Edward Lee ” hypertext transfer protocol: //

( 23 March 1999 ) “ Robert E. Lee, Beloved General of the South ” ( 23 March 1999 )