Recruitment and Sustainability in Non Profit Organizations Maja BUS 482-01 11/29/11 Table of Contents Introduction3 Recruiting and sustaining volunteers4 Survey Data5 Basic Information5 Data Analysis5 Proposal & Recommendations6 References7 Introduction A volunteer is a person that freely and by choice executes a service without receiving salary (Random House, 2011). As a volunteer one devotes personal time to honorable organizations while relinquishing from financial settlement.
Nonprofit organizations rely substantially on volunteers to be able to operate successfully and efficiently. The ramification of voluntariness is reduced operational costs, which in return give a greater range for spending on other important areas within the organization. Based on data from 2009, the national volunteer rate in the US was 26. 8 %, approximating to about 63. 4 million volunteers, which again is equal to 8. 1 billion hours of volunteer work. These hours in terms of capital would generate about 169 billion dollars (Corporation for National and Community Service, 2010).
It is essential that nonprofit organizations retain a steady rate of volunteers at all times because the hours generated can determine the success or failure of an organization. For the number of volunteers to be optimal, it is important that organizations not only motivate and support current volunteers, but that they are able to promote themselves to further locate and recruit new volunteers to join the organization (Bussell, H. , & Forbes, D. 2002). There are several theories and strategies on how to attract and recruit volunteers, nfortunately these strategies are usually based on results from evaluations and studies of for-profit labor. Because nonprofits restrain from financial settlement, they have to emphasize and advertise the intangible benefits volunteering brings out, such as increased buoyant identity (Boezeman, E. J. , & Ellemers, N. 2008). Recruiting and sustaining volunteers For volunteers to keep volunteering in a nonprofit organization they must have a sense of organizational commitment.
This occurs when one “identifies with a particular organization and its goals and wishes to maintain membership in the organization” (Robbins, Judge, 2009, p. 79). Specifically, affective commitment applies to volunteering, “an emotional attachment to the organization and a belief in its values”. (Robbins, Judge, 2009, p. 79). By relating to the organization, and sharing the same beliefs and values, one is more likely to keep volunteering (Boezeman, E. J. , & Ellemers, N. 2008). Job involvement is also a crucial step to sustain the level of volunteers.
If the volunteers can connect and relate to the service performed, vigorously take part of the process, and appreciate and apply the final performance to one’s own identity and value, one portrays a high level of job involvement (Robbins, Judge, 2009, p. 79). Recruitment in nonprofit organization can be a challenge. People usually respond positively to a paycheck when labor is needed, but when there is no form for material or tangible reward, the positive feedback remains. Research has found that the social identity theory is applicable when it comes to recruitment of volunteers in nonprofit organizations (Social Identity Theory. 002). The reason for this is because social identity theory addresses intangible outcomes, such as self worth, as an incentive for group desirability. Social identity theory suggests a rational conceptual structure to further investigate the organizational structure of current volunteers. This structure proposes that people obtain their self-image somewhat to their group and nonprofit organization. Further, it suggests that part of self concept obtained from these nonprofits is applied to social identity (Boezeman, E. J. , & Ellemers, N. (2008). Survey Data
A survey (see Appendix 1) was sent out online using the website SurveyMonkey on November 9, 2011. The survey consisted of 10 questions and a total of 11 people responded to the survey. Basic Information 63. 6% of those surveyed were male and 36. 4% female. 100 % of the participants are in the age of 18-28 years old. 90. 9 % of those surveyed are students. Data Analysis When analyzing the data from the survey there are certain results that stand out. 0 % of those surveyed are currently working for a nonprofit, while 45. 5 % have previously worked for a nonprofit. Also, when looking at if volunteering was or is required or not, 81. % responds with no; volunteer participation is not required by an employer, school, church or other agency. This means that the remaining 18. 2 % has done volunteer work due to a requirement from someone other than oneself. One way of reading these results may be to suggest that to increase the number of volunteers, volunteering should be a requirement by an employer, school or church. By making volunteering a requirement the number of volunteers may increase at a certain time, but to keep the numbers of volunteers increased at a steady rate, this is not the way to go forth.
By looking at the reason and motivation to volunteer, the survey reveals that 63. 6 % wants to learn something by choosing 4 on the scale. On the other hand, 45. 5 % answered their motivation was based on wanting to improve their resume, also choosing 4 on the scale. 40 % answered to occupy free time with 1, not at all important. Proposal & Recommendations Being the most important group of a nonprofit organization, volunteers can help make it or break it for a nonprofit organization.
Having a small number of volunteers experiencing an affective commitment, one must be able to reach out and meet the requirements of those not wanting to or not willing to stay long term. By being open to efficient and short-term volunteering, while at the same time not have unrealistic expectations to volunteers, this being especially new and younger volunteers (Boezeman, E. J. , & Ellemers, N. 2008). Volunteering is for many volunteers a leisure activity, and it is therefore treated like a leisure activity, balanced in between work-related time, obligated time and unobligated time (Lockstone-Binney, L. Holmes, K. , Smith, K. , & Baum, T. 2010). By using and involving the expectant theory to the recruitment of volunteers, the volunteers will know ahead of time what to expect as far as outcomes go, they will therefore experience a higher level of competence as well as valuing their own efforts (Northouse, 2012, p. 214). The best way to recruit and sustain volunteers in a nonprofit organization is to use the social identity theory as a tool. By reaching out and focusing on how the volunteers can discover self-image and self-concept there is a bigger chance of achieving long-term volunteer commitment (Boezeman, E.
J. , & Ellemers, N. (2008). References Bussell, H. , & Forbes, D. (2002). Understanding the volunteer market: The what, where, who and why of volunteering. International Journal Of Nonprofit & Voluntary Sector Marketing, 7(3), 244. Random House. (2011). volunteer. (n. d. ). Dictionary. com Unabridged. Retrieved November 27, 2011, from Dictionary. com website: http://dictionary. reference. com/browse/volunteer Corporation for National and Community Service. “Research Brief: Volunteering in America Research Highlights” (2010). http://independentsector. org/volunteer_time Boezeman, E.
J. , & Ellemers, N. (2008). Volunteer Recruitment: The Role of Organizational Support and Anticipated Respect in Non-Volunteers’ Attraction to Charitable Volunteer Organizations. Journal Of Applied Psychology, 93(5), 1013-1026. Lockstone-Binney, L. , Holmes, K. , Smith, K. , ;amp; Baum, T. (2010). Volunteers and volunteering in leisure: social science perspectives. Leisure Studies, 29(4), 435-455. doi:10. 1080/02614367. 2010. 527357 Introduction to leadership: concepts and practice / Peter G. Northouse – 2nd ed. Sage Publications, Inc. p. 79 Robbins, Stephen P. Organizational ehavior/Stephen P. Robbins, Timothy A. Judge – Thirteenth ed. Pearson Education, Inc. p. 214 Social Identity Theory. (2002). In Craig Calhoun, (Ed. ), Dictionary of the social sciences in politics and social sciences. UK: Oxford University Press, Inc. Internet Explorer. www. oxfordreference. com (16 June 2003). APPENDIX 1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Considering your motivation and reasons to volunteer, rate the factors that made an impact in your decision to volunteer. (With 1 being not at all important and 6 being extremely important). 9. How do you feel about your volunteer work environment? 0. Non profit organizations are in constant need of volunteers. What could be done differently that would make volunteering easier to accomplish? An environment that would allow people to come and go when they please without feeling obligated to not leave or finish a certain task… | Spread the word by talking to people who are interested in the field of work the non profit organization is in. | Make them feel like they are helping someone else out. | Get paid. | More visual sign ups, advocate in schools etc. | Allowing volunteer work for people on student visa. |