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Provide between the Athens and Spartans were

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Provide a concise comparison of Athens and Sparta, summarizing key differences and similarities between them.

 

The differences between the Athens and Sparta were that the Spartans were migrated into the Peloponnese, the mainland of southern Greek around 1000 B.C.E as mentioned in the book “The Earth and Its People” (pg. 132). The Spartans were interested in development, trade, and arts. They invaded the Fertile land of Messina because of increase in population and give the native population of Messina the status of Helots. The Helots were the slaves of Spartans and worked on the farms for them. Everything that was growing by them was given to the Spartan masters so that they could spend their lives in training for the military as mentioned in the book (pg. 133). The Spartan was war loving people and their army was the best in Greece. Seven years old boys were usually taken away from their families and were put in military training centers or camps (barracks) where they were taught about discipline and useful war strategies. The Spartans had also “maintained regional peace through the Peloponnesian league.” (pg.133) The Athens occupied the region of Attica which contains several fertile lands and cultivation of olive trees as mentioned in the book (pg.133). The Athens were modest kind of people and formed a democratic form of a government. Their citizens were divided into four classes. The top three classes could hold a state office positions and the people belongs from the lowest class could only participate in the meetings of the Assembly (pg. 133). The Athenian leaders mainly Solon abolished the Slavery and formed the Assembly of 500, people of courts where ordinary citizens could participate in political proceedings and could be selected for the highest office positions. The similarities between the Athens and Spartans were that these both were the two main Greek cities-states who were the two most famous societies of Greece. These both were the enemy of each other and formed alliances against each other in the Peloponnesian War (pg. 137).  They both consist of the huge amount of slaves but the status and the treatment given to them was completely different in both societies (Quora.com). Both societies put some sort of restrictions on their female population and don’t treat them equally as men’s. The women’s had limited rights in both societies and were expected to do well in bearing children and taking care of their husbands.

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2 Discuss the Conflict of the Orders. Your answer should explain what it was and detail the reforms that resulted from it.

 

 The conflicts of orders were a kind of a struggle between the elite group of people and the poor people of the Roman Republic. This conflict lasted from 494 to 287 B.C.E and it was considered as a political struggle between the rich and poor.  The wealthy people during that period were called as the “Patricians” while the majority of the population (the poor) were called as the “Plebeians”. The reason for this conflict was that there was a significant amount of disparities between elite and poor as well as the poor were treated unfairly by the rich people. The Plebeians decided to stand up for their rights and demanded equal respect. For this, they decided to refuse to work or fight and “even tried to physically withdraw from the city” as mentioned in the book (pg.151). This eventually pressurized the elite people which resulted in the publication of the laws on the twelve stone. These laws eventually formed a system of the check which would look over the decisions or the laws made by the government officials (the rich). Another important development resulted out of it was the creation of new officials called as “the tribunes” who were given the authority of veto and blocking the actions of the Assembly or officials which threaten the “interest of the lower orders” as mentioned in the book (pg.151).  This conflict of orders came to an end when the fewer Plebeians were treated equally as the Patricians and were given fewer governmental official positions (quora.com).

 

Discuss the hoplite phalanx, explaining what it was and how it promoted social and political change in ancient Greece.

A new kind of warfare which was developed by Greeks in the early seventh century B.C.E and was waged by hoplites. The hoplite was a form of an army who were heavily armored wearing different things such as the helmet, a breastplate, and leg guards during wars. They wore these things and fight against another army by making use of Phalanx. Phalanx was a strategy in which all hoplites must stand in a row upon row of men. They all must stand strong in the similar position as long as they can fully protect each other. The hoplite also carries a round shield and sword. After reading from the textbook, I have found that the hoplite phalanx promoted social change in ancient Greece as it made possible to end the battle in just a few hours rather than days and months. Which means that the remaining hoplite could return their homes earlier. They hoplite phalanx made possible for the ancient Greeks to colonized other places or other nations much easier which means that the Greeks had a chance to know about other people culture and spread their own culture throughout the other nations. The political change experienced by Greek was that the hoplite phalanx made the Greece army stronger which means that the Greeks can easily defend themselves against their enemies and defeat them with much courage.

Describe the basic tenets of Confucianism and Legalism, and explain how each was actually used politically during the Classical Age.

The basic tenets of Confucianism were the human behavior and it focused on morality, conducts and government. The Confucianists believe in rituals or forms of behavior.The ideals, beliefs, and saying of the Confucius were kept in written form as the Analects and passed on from one generation to another. The Confucianism was used politically during the classical age in a way that the Confucius ideas gained access to employment and power as universities provided the students with much knowledge related to the Confucianism beliefs and ideas. Then each year as mentioned in the textbook, the government was depended upon the scholar-officials who were promoted based on their knowledge about the Confucian texts. They advise the imperial government to behave well (ethical behavior) with the people and give orders that are fair towards all. The Legalism is a Chinese philosophy which emphasizes in making strict laws and giving harsh punishments. During the rule of Qin government, who was a legalist ruler he abolished the rule of giving the property, land and the estates to the eldest son after the king passed on. Instead, he said it to divide it among or passed on to the several heirs. He also builds an administrative form of government which would consist of district officials appointed by the king. I would say that the legalism was used politically in a way that it developed a new kind of system as I have mentioned before where the government give harsh punishment to those who break the laws so that other people could learn a lesson from it and first time ever, it becomes possible to divided all the wealth of the king and to be given to the other heirs so that I think that everyone has an authority to overlook someone who would try to break the laws or go against the government.

 

Essay Question:

Discuss the various ways in which the position of women was established and maintained in the ancient world, drawing on examples from at least three societies.

After reading about the history related to the ancient world, I have found that women were considered inferior than men. They were not treated fairly and were given limited rights. For example. In the Mesopotamian society, the position of the women was established and maintained in a way that they were responsible for bearing and rearing children which eventually become the key profession of many Mesopotamian women as mentioned in the textbook (pg.34). They were forbidden from learning skills of the scribe or artisans. Some women do work outside of the home but were allowed only to work in textile factories or as prostitutes, tavern keepers, bakers, or fortunetellers. This clearly demonstrates that how women face the discrimination in the Mesopotamian society since they weren’t considered as someone that could be trained as men (Scribe) to maintain a professional position where they were taught to read and write by making use of writing systems such as cuneiform, hieroglyphics or other ancient writing systems. I would say that the Mesopotamian society favored men and make laws that favored the rights of the men as mentioned in the textbook (pg.34). I think that the Mesopotamian society strongly believes that the women are only capable of taking care of their children, doing work related household (such as cleaning, cooking, washing ) since their women were restricted to get a professional position as I have mentioned before. Similarly, In the Indian society, women had limited rights and men have control over their behavior or conduct. During the period of Gupta Empire,  women lost their right to own property and were forbidden from studying sacred text and were treated same as the lower class members of the Shudra. They were expected to obey their father and after marriage their husbands.  A terrifying thing, I have found related to the Indian society was the ritual of “Sati” where “a widow was expected to “cremate herself on her husband’s funeral pyre” as mentioned in the book (pg.195). If that widow refused to do that so then the Indian society prohibit her to remarry and reject her socially as well as provide her with less opportunity to earn a living.  I think that such kinds of ancient rituals clearly explains that how the ancient Indian society restricts their women to move on with their lives. They weren’t allowed to do things that they wanted to do. In the Kama Sutra and the Arthashastra which describes the relationship between the Women and Men of the ancient Indian society, it was clearly visible that the Indian society does not treat women equally as men. For example, if a woman mistreats her husband then the husband had full authority over her and were allowed to beat her with the bamboo bark, a rope, or with hand on her hips.  In the Chinses society, the women were expected to do similar things that the other two societies which I have mentioned before were expected to do. Similarly, the Chinese women were expected to obey their husband and take care of their children. In the biography of the famous philosopher the Confucian Mencius mother, it was mentioned that the ancient woman of the Chinese society had the duty of cooking, heating the wine, taking care of her parents in law and should not have the desire of handling the outside matters. She must follow “three submissions” as mentioned in the textbook (pg. 170). First one is to submit herself to her father when she is young and after marriage her husband and when her husband died she has to submit herself to her son.  I think the submission means is to giving authority to her parents to make her marry whoever they wanted her to marry.  After the submission, she really doesn’t have the power to go against her parent’s decisions. After marriage, I would say that submission meant is to obey her husband and do things that please him.  As a mother, instead of having authority over her sons she was expected to obey them too. Not only in the ancient Chinese society but in the other two societies Mesopotamian and the Indian. The women were treated unfairly and always have to consider the fact they are inferior to the men’s. Their position was established and maintained in the ancient world as someone who takes care of her children, please her husband by obeying him and work in-house whose duty is to clean, wash and cook food. She absolutely had no power to take decisions against her husband and weren’t allowed to speak for herself.  

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