Prostate included in the blood test to

cancer is relatively critical and serious disease among men especially those above
40 years old which is death-causing. In 2004, approximately 230110
men were found out with prostate cancer and 29900 of them were died from this
cancer in United States (Albertsen,
2005). There are some common signs and symptoms for those suffered from
prostate cancer such as frequent urination, blood in urine or semen, burning
sensation during ejaculation and urination. Thus, the biomarker for prostate
cancer such as prostate specific antigen (PSA) is included in the blood test to
check on the level of this protein whether it is under normal range that can
indicate the presence of prostate cancer.

In fact, numerous factors
could be led to prostate cancer initiation. For instance, gene mutation,
inflammation and abnormal increased the rate of cell proliferation
(Ramalingam, Ramamurthy and Njar, 2017) will give rise to prostate cancer. This cancer also associated
with dysregulation of PI3K/AKT pathway and other signalling pathway. When all
these pathways are not regulated or well-controlled, it leads to reduction in
apoptotic rate, tumour progression and metastasis (Claudio, 2016) and this will
substantially increase the risk from getting prostate cancer.

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and abnormal cell proliferation can cause the epithelium of normal prostate
initiate the cascading, which induce the lesions to form. This directly gives a
primary prostate cancer or proliferative inflammatory atrophy (PIA) and simultaneously,
it stimulates an intermediate stage known as prostatic intraepithelial
neoplasia (PIN) (Ramalingam, Ramamurthy and Njar, 2017). Other
than that, there are a lot of scientific proofs elucidating that the application
of molecular and pathological analysis with prostate cancer of human and animal
model depicted that infectious agents, estrogenic hormone, age, race, genetic and
environmental factors can quicken the deterioration in the prostate epithelium
and provoke inflammation which might be attributed to make prostate cancer to
reach critical level (Ramalingam, Ramamurthy and Njar, 2017).

the pathways are inter-connected and regulated to have a normal prostate due to
the effect of cross-talk mechanism. Androgen receptors (AR) regulation is one
of the major pathways must be under control to avoid prostate cancer. Those
pathways involve with the kinase and the phosphorylation actions are the core
whereby related to the development and progression of prostate cancer. Besides,
molecular changes also responsible and produce androgen-independence prostate
cancer cells (Ramalingam, Ramamurthy and Njar, 2017) which promote its