Poland ; electricity Essay

  1. Electricity
    1. Introduction

Over the old ages, there has been significant sum of advancement in footings of liberalising the Polish electricity market, nevertheless, it is an on-going procedure and there is still much to be done before a wholly working competitory market emerges.

The twelvemonth 2013, saw a farther development of the electricity market in Poland which was evidenced by the addition in ingestions, coevals degrees, figure of completed commercial minutess and turnovers along with lessening in electricity monetary values. The construction of electricity coevals remained unchanged with bulk of coevals coming from conventional beginnings, nevertheless, a gradual rise in renewable energy coevals was observed. At the sweeping market, high degree of concentration was maintained both in footings of installed capacity and volume of electricity fed into the web. Whereas, on the retail market an addition in figure of electricity consumers based on the free market regulations was observed. In comparing to 2012, the figure of consumers who switched providers increased by more than half in 2013 with most of them belonging to the group of families.

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  1. Supply and Demand

In 2013, the demand for electricity increased making 157,980 GWh ( 967 GWh higher than in 2012 ) with maximal peak demand recorded at 24,761 MW on 10 December 2013 and the minimal demand recorded at 18,271 MW on July 2013 (Figure 5) . [ [ 1 ] ] Whereas, the lowest national demand was recorded at 11,243 MW on 7 July 2013 ( 1,084 MW less than in 2012 ) .

Figure 5Electricity demand formson the yearssFigure 6Electricity productions in

when the upper limit and minimal national electricity1950-2013

demand took topographic point in 2013

The aggregative maximal capacity in the Polish Power System ( PPS ) was recorded at 38,112 MW as on 31 December 2013 ( 392 MW addition in comparing to matching twenty-four hours of 2012 ) of which coal-burning power workss accounted for 79.3 % ( difficult coal fired power workss with 52.0 % and lignite fired workss with 24.9 % ) portions. The staying capacity was split among air current and other renewable beginnings accounting for 9.0 % ( a 31.6 % addition from old twelvemonth ) and 12 % came from other beginnings, ensuing in the gross electricity production of 162,501 GWh in 2013 ( 1.66 % addition from 2012 ) as illustrated inFigure 6.[[ 2 ]]The construction of electricity coevals did non alter much in comparing to 2012 as illustrated inFigure 7 and Table 7.[[ 3 ]]The excess of electricity coevals amounting 4,521 GWh was exported.

Figure 7Structure of electricity coevals capacity as at 31 December 2013 [ MW ]

Table 7:The construction of electricity coevals in 2011?2013 [ GWh ]

Specification

2011

2012

2013

Entire electricity coevals

163 153

159 853

162 501

Hard coal-burning power workss

90 813

84 493

84 566

Lignite-fired power workss

53 623

55 593

56 959

Gas-fired power workss

4 355

4 485

3 149

Industrial power workss

9 000

8 991

9 171

Water-based public-service corporation power workss

2 529

2 265

2 762

Wind and other renewable beginnings

2 833

4 026

5 895

Balance of cross-border trade

-5 243

-2 840

-4 521

Domestic electricity ingestion

157 910

157 031

157 980

The portion of Centrally Dispatched Generating Units ( CDGUs ) in the maximal capacity of the PPS was approximated at 66.9 % , i.e. 25,492 MW ( 384 MW less than in 2012 due to the decommissioning of one bring forthing unit at Turow power works ( 206 MW ) , two bring forthing units at A?agisza power works ( 240 MW ) and increase in staying power unit capacity by 62 MW ) . Whereas, the portion of Non – Centrally Dispatched Generating Units ( NCDGUs ) was approximated at 33.1 % , i.e. 12,620 MW ( 776 MW addition than in 2012 due to the operation of new air current farms ) .Figure 8 and Table 8represents the major CHP workss and power bring forthing units in Poland.

Figure 8Major Beginnings of Production [ 21 ][[ 4 ]]

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Table 8Major CHP workss and power bring forthing units in Poland [[ 5 ]]

Name

Location

Electricity coevals capacity

Maximum heat capacity

BOT Elektrownia BeA‚chatow

Rogowiec

5298

Elektrownia Kozienice

Kozienice

2820

BOT Elektrownia Turow

Bogatynia

2106

Elektrownia PoA‚aniec

PoA‚aniec

1800

Elektrownia Rybnik

Rybnik

1775

ZespoA‚ Elektrowni Dolna Odra

NowenCzarnkowo k. Gryfina

1742

PKE SA Elektrownia Jaworzno III

Jaworzno

1535

372 MWt

BOT Elektrownia Opole

Brzezie k. Opola

1532

ZE PAK Elektrownia PA…tnow I

Konin

1200

PKE SA Elektrownia A?aziska

A?aziska Gorne

1155

196 MWt

PKE SA Elektrownia A?agisza

BA™dzin

840

425 MWt

PKE SA Elektrownia Siersza

Trzebinia

786

36.5 MWt

Elektrownia OstroA‚A™ka

OstroA‚A™ka

647

ZE PAK Elektrownia Adamow

Turek

600

Elektrownia Skawina

Skawina

575

511 MWt

ZE PAK Elektrownia Konin

Konin

488

ZE PAK Elektrownia PA…tnow II

Konin

474

Elektrownia Stalowa Wola

Stalowa Wola

350

PKE SA Elektrownia Halemba

Ruda AslA…ska

200

58 MWt

PKE SA Elektrownia

Blachownia

KA™dzierzyn KoA?le

165

  1. MWt
  1. Market reform and industry construction
    1. Sweeping market

In comparing to the old old ages, the figure of single energy groups every bit good as construction of these entities did non alter much with PGE Polska Grupa Energetyczna SA ( 39.3 % – lessening from 40.5 % in 2012 ) and TAURON Polska Energia SA ( 13.6 % – lessening from 13.7 % in 2013 ) holding the bulk portions in the production subsector and in the supply subsector severally as illustrated in Figure.[[ 6 ]]Due to the being of vertically incorporate capital groups, the electricity coevals and trade markets remained extremely centralized as PGE, TOURON and EDF together held portions of 55.4 % ( 1.3 % less than in 2012 ) in the installed capacities and 62.6 % ( 1.7 % less than in 2012 ) in electricity coevals. The HHI index in 2013 saw a farther bead by 4.1 % in comparing to 2012 ( 5.0 % bead in 2012 in comparing to 2011 ) .

FigureShare of capital groups in volume of electricity fed into the grid in 2013

Sale of 78,5 TWh on the power exchange ( 11.7 % less than in 2012 ) and sale of 57,2 TWh to energy trading entities ( 29.7 % more than in 2012 ) constituted the majority of electricity gross revenues by generators. [ [ 7 ] ] In 2013, a sum of 59 entities including electricity generators, trading entities and securities firm houses were registered at the Polish Power Exchange ( POLPX ) ensuing in a entire volume of dealing of 176,553 TWh ( 33.76 % more than in 2012 ) . [ [ 8 ] ] However, the major volume of trade took topographic point at the Commodity Forward Instruments Market with Physical Delivery ( CFIM ) with a sum of 9993 minutess ( including electricity auctions ) ensuing in entire dealing of 154,299 TWh ( 36.70 % more than in 2012 ) . Whereas, 1 612 006 minutess took topographic point on the Day-Ahead Market ( DAM ) amounting to a entire volume of 22,201 TWh ( 16.21 % more than in 2012 ) and 3,238 minutess at the Inter-Day Market amounting to a entire volume of 52,676 MWh ( 173 % more than in 2012 ) . [ [ 9 ] ]

The mean electricity gross revenues monetary value on the competitory market in 2013 amounted to 181.55 PLN/MWh ( 9.84 % less than in 2012 ) [ [ 10 ] ] and the mean quarterly monetary value amounted to 195.84 PLN/MWh in the 4Thursdayone-fourth of 2013. [ [ 11 ] ] On the POLPX, the monthly mean value of IRDN24 index at the DAM was more than 13 % than in 2012 and at the CFIM a lessening of approximately 14 % ( from 177.00 PLN/MWh in 2012 to 152,25 PLN/MWh ) was recorded. [ [ 12 ] ]

  1. Retail market

The retail market was majorly constituted by the 5 large Distribution System Operators ( DSOs ) with their direct grid connexion to the transmittal grid along with 153 DSOs runing within the vertically incorporate groups who did non take part in the distribution activity and 80 trading companies. On the demand side, about 16,7 million consumers were recognized out of which 15 million ( over 90 % ) belonged to the G duty group ( largely household ) consisting 24 % portion in the entire volume of electricity supply and the remainder of the portions came from A ( industrial consumers, high electromotive force grid ) , B ( industrial consumers, medium electromotive force grid ) and C ( commercial consumers, low electromotive force grid ) duty groups consumers. In 2013, about 89000 consumers belonging to A, B and C groups switched provider, whereas, in G group this figure amounted to 131 000 ensuing in the addition of Third Party Access ( TPA ) clients by 52.6 % ( 39.4 % from A, B and C groups and 63.1 % for G group ) . [ [ 13 ] ]

The alterations on the energy market guaranting liberalisation of electricity market and decrease in monetary values of green certification has lead to diminish in electricity monetary values for consumers who did non exchange providers with the biggest bead observed in group A ( by 9.7 % than in 2012 ) and the smallest bead observed in C group ( 0.5 % than in 2012 ) .

  1. Transmission and distribution web

The Polskie Sieci Elektroenergetyczne SA ( PSE SA ) a province owned entity was appointed as the electricity transmittal system operator ( TSO ) on 10 October 2013 until 31 December 2030. It is responsible for all the activities as mentioned in Article 9, paragraph 1 of the directing 2009/72/EC. The enfranchisement of independency by TSO as mentioned in the directing 2009/72/EC was transposed into the Polish legal jurisprudence, staying by which PSE SA was granted certification of independency on with mention to Article 9d, paragraph 1e of the Energy Law Act. The TSO is responsible for carry oning trade of electricity both at domestic and across border degree. PSE SA comprises of 245 power line with a entire length of about 13.4 1000 kilometer and a 101 high electromotive force substation ( EHV ) . In order to cover current and future demand for electricity, PSE SA in its development program for 2010-2025 includes the investing undertakings sing interconnectors as shown in Table 9.

Table 9Investing Undertakings related to interconnectors [[ 14 ]]

Undertakings

Location

Construction of 400/220/110 kilovolts

OA‚tarzew substation

Installation of TR 400/220 kilovolt, 500 MVA

OA‚tarzew substation

Installation of TR 400/220 kV 500 MVA

OA‚tarzew substation

Installation of TR 400/110 kV 330 MVA

OA‚tarzew substation

Construction of 400 kilovolts

Narew-A?omA?a-OstroA‚A™ka line

Extension of 220/110kV with 400kV patchboard

OstroA‚A™ka substation

Installation of TR 400/220 kV 500 MVA

OstroA‚A™ka substation

Installation of TR 400/220 kV 500 MVA

OstroA‚A™ka substation

Construction of double-track 400 kilovolt

EA‚k-A?omA?a line

Extension of 220/110kV with 400kV patchboard

EA‚k substation

Installation of TR 400/110 kV 330 MVA

EA‚k substation

Construction of 400 kilovolts

Siedlce Ujrzanow-MiA‚osna line

Construction of 400/110 kV – I stage

Siedlce Ujrzanow substation

Extension of 400 kilovolts switchboard in 400/110kV

Narew substation

Construction of 400 kilovolts

PA‚ock-Olsztyn MA…tki line

Extension of 400/110 kilovolts

Olsztyn MA…tki substation

Construction of 400 kilovolts substation

A?omA?a

Construction of double-track 400 kV OstroA‚A™ka-StanisA‚awow line with a partial usage of bing 220 kV OstroA‚A™ka-MiA‚osna line

OstroA‚A™ka-StanisA‚awow line and OstroA‚A™ka-MiA‚osna line

Construction of 400 kilovolts or 400/110 kilovolts

StanisA‚awow substation

Construction of single-track 400 kilovolt

Kozienice-Siedlce Ujrzanow line

Construction of EA‚k-Polish boundary line line

EA‚k

Installation of stage shifters

Krajnik-Vierraden line

Installation of stage shifters

MikuA‚owa-Hagenwerder line

Construction of Plewiska-Polish boundary line line – preparatory plants

towards Eisenhuettenstadt

Modernization and extension of 400/220 kilovolts

Krajnik substation

Extension of 400/220/110 kilovolts

Kozienice substation

Modernization and extension of 400/220/110 kilovolts

MikuA‚owa substation

Extension of 400/110 kilovolts

PA‚ock substation

Re-commissioning of 750 kilovolts

Rzeszow-Chmielnicka ( Ukraine ) interconnector

In conformity with Article 9d, paragraph 1 and 2 of the Energy Law Act, the distribution system operator ( DSO ) is a to the full independent from any kind of activities other than those related to transmittal and distribution of electricity. By the terminal of 2013, there were 5 DSOs runing within the vertically incorporate energy groups subjected to legal unbundling and another 153 DSOs which were devoid of legal unbundling. The DSO is responsible for keeping the distribution grid ( normally non more than 110kV ) . Figure presents the largest DSOs and their several country of operation.

FigureDistribution Systems Operators – countries of operation [[ 15 ]]

  1. Monitoring balance of supply and demand

Guaranting security of electricity supply is non an easy undertaking comprising of both short-run and long-run activities. The President of ERO ensures proper operation of the web by accessing the activities undertaken by the electricity system operator. The relation between available capacities of domestic power workss to the peak capacity demand in National Electricity System ( NES ) in 2013 was assessed as shown inFigure.

Figure:Available capacity of domestic power workss and maximal domestic capacity demand in the eventide extremum, presented as mean values on working yearss of a month in 2013 [[ 16 ]]

Table 10nowadayss the capacity militias in forenoon and eventide extremums which further depicts that both mean hebdomadal ratio of militias and the capacity demand exceeded the mention value as mentioned in the Transmission Network Code by 9 % (Figure ) .

Table 10Minimum and maximal capacity modesty in 2013 [[ 17 ]]

Morning Extremum

Flushing Peak

Capacity Reserve [ MW ]

Reserve/Demand

[ % ]

Capacity Reserve [ MW ]

Reserve/Demand [ % ]

Minute

1393

6.5

1272

5.4

Soap

14094

100.1

12932

81.0

FigureRatio of capacity modesty and capacity demand in forenoon and flushing extremums in 2013 [[ 18 ]]

Furthermore, a lessening in modesty capacity of domestic power workss accompanied with an addition in power losingss was observed in comparing to 2012 ( Figure ) . The highest power losingss compared to domestic capacity was observed at 7.2 % and 6.8 % in April and March severally ( Figure ) .

FigureComparison of selected facets of operation of public-service corporation power workss in 2012 and 2013 [[ 19 ]]

FigurePower losingss in relation to available capacity in forenoon and flushing extremums in 2013 [[ 20 ]]

More than 60 % of Poland ‘s installed capacities are over 30 old ages old. Merely less than 20 % of these capacities are less than 20 old ages old. The economic system ministry estimates that around 4.4 GB out of the sum of around 37.0 GW of capacities will hold to be switched off in 2014-2017. However, the first new axis are to be delivered merely in 2015, numbering about 1.0 GW. As a effect there are menaces that Poland may confront blackouts in 2016-2017. In 2012, the capacity of the Polish electrical power coevals system reached 38.02 GW, of which 26.26 GW was generated by public power workss.

Table 11Power workss and CHP workss under building: under building, expanded and planned. [[ 21 ]]

Power plant/CHP works

Investor

Planned capacity

Fuel

EC Zgierz

PGE

20 MW

Hard coal, lignite, biomass, gas, oil

Elektrownia Rybnik

EDF

900 MW

Hard coal and biomass

EC Zabrze ( new cogeneration unit )

Fortum

130 MW + 180 MW

Hard coal and biomass

EC Nowa – DA…browa Gornicza

Tauron

50 MW

Hard coal and gas

Elektrownia Jaworzno

Tauron

910 MW

Hard coal

Elektrownia Kozienice

( power unit no. 11, super-critical parametric quantities )

Enea

900-1000 MW

Hard coal

Elektrownia Opole

( power units no. 5 and 6 )

PGE

2 ten 900 MW

Hard coal

Elektrownia OstroA‚A™ka

Energa

1000 MW

Hard coal

Elektrownia PoA‚noc, Rajkowy

Jacek Strzelecki, Radwan Investments GmbH, Kulczyk Holding

2 ten 1000 MW

Hard coal

Kopalnia Murcki-Staszic and MysA‚owice-WesoA‚a

Katowicki Holding WA™glowy

40 – 60 MW

Hard coal

EC Tychy

Tauron

50 MW

Hard coal

EC Zofiowka

SpoA‚ka Energetyczna

“ JastrzA™bie ” SA

75 MW + 110 MW

Hard coal

Power works on the land of former Czeczott mine

Kompania WA™glowa

Approx 1000 MW

Hard coal

KA™dzierzyn ( new CHP works on premises of

ZakA‚ady Azotowe KA™dzierzyn )

ZakA‚ady Azotowe KA™dzierzyn

50 MW + 250 MW

Hard coal

ZakA‚ad Wytwarzania Tychy

( new cogeneration unit )

Tauron

50 MW + 90 MW

Hard coal

Elektrownia Turow

( power unit no. 11 )

PGE

430 – 450 MW

Lignite

Nuclear power workss

PGE

2 ten 3000 MW

Nuclear fuel

DA…browa Gornicza

( building of turbo generator in ZakA‚ad

Wytwarzania Nowa )

Tauron CiepA‚o

50 MW

Blast furnace gas

Koksownia PrzyjaA?o w DA…browie Gorniczej

( energy power unit )

Koksownia PrzyjaA?o

71 MW

Coke oven gas

WrocA‚aw ( new CHP works )

Fortum

400 MW + 290 MW

Gas and biomass

EC Zielona Gora ( new gas and oil power unit )

EC Zielona Gora

160 MW

Gas/oil

KA™dzierzyn-KoA?le ( CHP works )

Grupa Azoty Tarnow

130 or 360 MW

Gas and difficult coal

EC Gorzow ( new combined rhythm cogeneration power unit )

PGE

138 MWe I 90MWt

Gas

EC Katowice ( new gas power unit )

Tauron

135 MW + 90 MW

Gas

EC Rzeszow ( new cogeneration unit )

PGE

29 MW +26MW

Gas

EC Siedlce ( new combined rhythm unit )

PrzedsiA™biorstw o Energetyczne w Siedlcach

36 MWe I 34 MWt

Gas

EC Stalowa Wola

Tauron and PGNiG

450 MW + 240 MW

Gas

EC A»erao

PGNiG Termika

Approx. 450 MW

Gas

ElektrociepA‚ownia Bydgoszcz

( new power unit )

PGE GiEK

473 MW

Gas

Elektrownia Blachownia

( new gas power unit )

Tauron and KGHM Polska

MiedA?

800 – 910 MW

Gas

Elektrownia Kozienice

( power unit no. 11 )

Enea and PGNiG

800 – 900 MW

Gas

Elektrownia A?agisza ( new cogeneration unit )

PGNiG and Tauron

413 MW

Gas

Elektrownia Skawina

( new combined rhythm power unit )

CEZ

430 MW + 200 MW

Gas

GrudziA…dz ( combined rhythm power works )

Energa

420 – 600 MW

Gas

Lublin

PGE

135 MW

Gas

PA‚ock

PKN Orlen

400 – 600 MW

Gas

PA‚ock ( building of new turbine set )

PKN Orlen

70 MW

Gas

PrzemyA›l ( new CHP works )

PKP Energetyka

25 MWe

Gas

PuA‚awy

ZA PuA‚awy and PGE Gornictwo and Energetyka

800 – 900 MW

Gas

Warszawa ( two new CHP workss )

PKP Energetyka

2 ten 50 MWe

Gas

WA‚ocA‚awek

PKN Orlen

463 MW

Gas

ZespoA‚ Elektrowni Dolna Odra – Elektrownia

Pomorzany ( new combined rhythm power unit )

PGE

From 200 to 270 MWe

Gas

Water power works on the Vistula river

Energa

60 – 100 MW

Hydro power

EC ElblA…g ( new power unit )

Energa

25 MW + 30 MW

Biomass

EC Tychy ( new power unit )

Tauron

40 MW

Biomass

Elektrownia Jaworzno III ( new power unit )

Tauron

50 MW

Biomass

Elektrownia Konin ( new power unit )

ZE PAK

50 MW

Biomass

Elektrownia PoA‚aniec ( new power unit )

GDF SUEZ Energia Polska

205 MW

Biomass

Elektrownia Stalowa Wola ( new power unit )

Tauron

50 MW

Biomass