biodiversity at the ecosystem level is a general approach of appreciating and
evaluating the natural richness of the Philippines, taking in concern the
active ecological roles and relationships of both the biotic and the abiotic
parts of the biosphere within a given location, as well as the influences of
natural occurrences and environmental changes caused by humans (Carpenter and
caused environmental degradation and the consequent adverse impact on biodiversity
are of worldwide concern. The restoration of degraded lands such as mine sites
is a priority area in the area of conservation biology (Rodrigues et al., 2006
and Pressey et al., 2007).
associated with plants constitute a major part of the earth’s biodiversity
(Price, 2002). Since herbivores feed on plants, it is generally accepted that
herbivorous insect diversity should increase with an increase in plant
diversity (Siemann et al., 1998, Lewinsohn and Roslin 2008, Dinnage et al.,
2012, and Castagneyrol and Jactel 2012), and this should subsequently also lead
to an increase in predacious insect diversity (Castagneyrol and Jactel 2012).
Mining activity causes massive destruction of the flora and
fauna by large-scale alteration of the topography and modification of the
physico-chemical properties of the soil. Disturbances in terrestrial ecosystems
can affect both vertebrate (Vallan 2000, and Wanger et al., 2009) and
invertebrate community (Longcore 2003) structure and functioning. However invertebrate
biodiversity reportedly reflects trends in species richness and community
composition more accurately than vertebrates, due to their higher diversity,
abundance, small size, short generation times and sensitivity to local
microclimatic conditions (Andersen and Sparling 1997). Moreover, many species
of insects are not only highly mobile but also exhibit rapid responses to
environmental changes. This makes them more effective indicators of
environmental degradation (Samways 1994).
The most diverse and
abundant group of multicellular life found in various ecosystems, more
generally on Earth, is represented by arthropods. (Martin et al., 2015).