When World War I was over, it left behind a significantly large amount of chaos and brought about the interwar years. The chaos caused by the war shattered the traditional philosophies and belief systems of many Europeans and this caused them to seek new economic and political systems that ensured their economy and security. During the interwar years, Benito Mussolini, Joseph Stalin and Adolf Hitler, were all dictators that became well known to their people, established foreign policies by conquering land, and gained power through various common techniques.
These three dictators who became leaders of Italy, Germany and the Soviet Union, introduced three totalitarian philosophies that were Communism, Fascism, and Nazism. Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy, and the USSR all adapted regimes that involved similar characteristics. All three dictators exercised terror, propaganda, indoctrination, censorship, secret police, and extreme nationalism. In document 2, Mussolini’s Rise to Power states “Mussolini expelled all opposition from parliament, abolished all political parties other than the Fascist Party, and created a totalitarian dictatorship with no free press, and a secret police force. This quote is showing us that Mussolini is using the secret police, terror and censorship. Document 2, Hitler’s Rise to Power and Stalin’s Rise to Power, states “Propaganda played on people’s fear for the future. The Nazi emphasis on military strength led many former soldiers to support the Nazi Party. ” and “In 1922, he was elected General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Party, enabling him to control the rank-and-file members loyal to him. ” This shows that Hitler is using propaganda, while Stalin is using indoctrination.
These are some examples of characteristics that all three of them shared. When Mussolini lost in the battle of Adowa, he was enraged, so he later invaded Ethiopia as revenge, and because they were rich in resources. This was their aggressive foreign act. In document 3, Italy invades Ethiopia, states “His new empire would also avenge past Italian defeats. Chief among these defeats was the battle of Adowa which took place in Ethiopia on March 1, 1896. ” This quote is telling us that Mussolini wants to invade Ethiopia to gain more land and have an equal amount of colonial empires as the others.
In document 3 Germany Invades Poland, the quote “The invasion began on September 1, 1939, one week after the signing of the Nazi- Soviet Non- Aggression Pact, and ended October 6, 1939, with Germany and the Soviet Union occupying all of Poland” is stating that Germany and the Soviet Union are working together to conquer Poland, and by this they are expanding their regimes and spreading their beliefs. As it states in document 3 The Soviet Union Invades Poland and Finland, “Finland had held out until March 1940, when the treaty was signed ceding about 9% of Finland’s territory and 20% of its industrial capacity to the Soviet Union. The aggressive foreign policy of the Soviet Union was invading Poland and Finland in order to attain various territories and by doing this, they gained economic control. Mussolini’s rise into power began when he first founded the Fascist Party in which they won 35 seats in the Italian Parliament. After this, there was a problem with the left-wing seizure of power and this led to the March on Rome that resulted with King Emmanuel III appointing Mussolini as Prime Minister of Italy.
The quote “In December 1914, Mussolini joined a group of Italian socialists who broke away from socialism and formed the first fascist group to support Italian expansion” from document 2 explains Mussolini’s rise in power. At first, Stalin began as a member of the Central Committee, in which he was able to control the rank-and-file members that were loyal to him. He then allied with Kamenev and Zinoviev to go against Trotsky, and when they accomplished this, Stalin betrayed them and allied with Bukharin. After this, he reversed the economic policy and introduced the collectivization of agriculture and the Five-Year Plan.
This is stated in document 2 in the quote “In 1928, Stalin reversed this policy and inaugurated collectivization of agriculture and the Five-Year Plan. ” Hitler gave many speeches to the public in which he told the Germans to resist the Communists and Jews and that he would create the Third Reich, which would rule the world for over 1,000 years. He tried to take control of the German government through force which only resulted in him going to jail. After this action he was appointed chancellor, and took complete presidential powers. In document 2, this quote “when President Hindenburg died in 1933, Hitler assumed presidential powers.
The Nazi Party’s rise to power was complete. ” explains most of this. Joseph Stalin, Benito Mussolini, and Adolf Hitler were all dictators that gained power by taking advantage of the crisis caused by World War I. They used terror, propaganda, indoctrination, censorship, secret police, and extreme nationalism in order to rise into power and established foreign policies. These three dictators introduced three totalitarian philosophies that included Communism, Nazism, and Fascism. Slowly and eagerly, they took advantage of any situation possible and began escalating into the world of power.