Myocardial Infarction Heart Attack Biology Essay

Presents, the myocardial infarction became the soundless slayer among the human around the universe. Myocardial infarction can be defined as the decease of bosom musculuss from a sudden obstruction in coronary arterias by blood coagulum. It is an irreversible procedure. Coronary arterias are critical to provide bosom musculuss with foods and O to keep the pumping actions. A obstruction in coronary arterias will strip the bosom muscles for blood supply and do the bosom to undergo anaerobiotic respiration that causes chest hurting -angina. If the blood flow is non restored within 20 to 40 proceedingss, irreversible decease of cardiac musculuss will take topographic point and cicatrixs will be formed. Therefore, the bosom will lose it ‘s strength and cease to work efficaciously. Furthermore, the cardiac apprehension which the bosom ceased to map will happen if the blood flow does non reconstruct after 4 to 6 hours.

The shorter the length of clip the blood supply is blocked, the lesser the extent the cardiac musculuss are weakened or suffer cell death5.

However, the myocardial infarction can be minimized with the promotions in medical interventions at the present. However, I choose to concentrate my purpose on coronary beltway surgery in this study.

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CUMULATIVE WORD COUNT: 194 *The deceasing bosom musculuss & gt ;

A Possible Treatment- Coronary Bypass Surgery

Coronary beltway surgery is a surgical intervention. It usually carries out when the coronary arterias are wholly blocked by supplying an alternate tract to provide blood to the cardiac musculuss. There are several techniques which are available to execute the surgery on either a stopped bosom or a beating bosom.

& gt ; *Coronary Artery Bypass Graft

Harmonizing to the American Heart Association, 427000 coronary arteria beltway transplant ( CABG ) surgeries were performed in the United States in 2004, doing it one of the most normally performed major operations18.

CUMULATIVE WORD COUNT: 359 Hence, CABG is a surgery which works on the whipping bosom which is besides known as off pump surgery. In contrast, the on pump surgery is the surgery which works on a stopped bosom. In the coronary beltway surgery, a blood vas from certain parts of organic structure is removed to short-circuit the obstruction or narrowing of the arterias and reconstruct the blood circulation to the cardiac musculuss. That blood vas is called a transplant which can be obtained from legs, chest or weaponries. Those vass are so safe to utilize as there are other tracts to provide blood to those peculiar tissues after the remotion of vass. Certain factors such as locations of obstructions, badness of obstructions and others are taken into considerations to make up one’s mind on which parts of transplant are used. There are several parts of transplants which can be used in coronary beltway surgery:

Internal mammary arteria

It is an arteria that is located in the thorax. It is besides the most common beltway transplants used and had proven to hold the best long term consequences. Besides, it is sewed next to the obstruction site on the arterias to reconstruct the blood circulation.

Saphenous vena

It is a vena which is located in the leg. It will be a minimum invasive on the remotion of this transplant and consequences in less marking with a faster rate of recovery.

Radial arterias

Those arterias are located in lower portion of weaponries which are known as ulnar and radial arterias. A careful trial has to be taken to find whether those arterias are suited for the patients or non.

Gastroepiploic arteria

This arteria located in the tummy and abdominal wall. It is less normally used for grafting as it might causes important internal hemorrhage in the procedure of operation.

^*The remotion of Saphenous vena in the leg


& gt ; *The location of endoscopic radial arteria

& gt ; *The location of internal mammal arteria

A individual will hold a higher hazard to acquire bosom onslaught if have damaged in the left part of bosom muscles19.

In my position, this might due to the left part of cardiac musculuss are critical to pump the blood to all parts of organic structure to present O and foods. Apart from that, the figure of transplant does non bespeak anything about the bosom status of patient.


The pie chart above is the beginnings from National Heart Institution ( IJN ) , Malaysia which displays the coronary beltway surgery is the most common surgeries in the unfastened bosom surgeries with 46 % . In my sentiment, I believe that the coronary beltway surgery is a dependable intervention for myocardial infarction based on the statistic figure from IJN.



2. AnA anesthesiologist injects an initiation agent to render the patient to be unconscious.

1. The patient is moved on to the operating tabular array.

5. The sawbones topographic points devices to stabilise the bosom in the instance of off pump surgery.

3. AnA endotracheal tubeA is inserted and secured by the anesthesiologist with mechanical ventilationA is started.

4. The thorax is opened via aA average sternotomy. The bosom is examined by the sawbones.

6. If the instance is “ on-pump ” , the sawbones instructs theA perfusionistA to startA cardiorespiratory beltway ( CPB ) . Once CPB is done, the sawbones topographic points theA aortal cross clampA across the aorta and the perfusionist will deliverA cardioplegiato halt the bosom.

7. One terminal of each transplant is sewn on to theA coronary arteriesA beyond theA blockagesA and the other terminal is attached to theA aorta.

8. Then, if in off-pump surgery, the stabilizing devices are removed. In contrast, in on pump surgery, the bosom is restarted as suturing the transplants to the aorta is done.

10. The patient is moved to theA intensive attention unitA ( ICU ) to retrieve. After stabilising in the ICU, the individual is transferred to the cardiac surgeryA wardA until ready to travel place.

9. Subsequently, theA sternumA is wired together and the scratchs areA suturedA closed.

The Procedure of Coronary Bypass Surgery [ 6,7,14 ]

The Social and Economic Deductions

In this modern and mercenary universe, people tend to acquire cardiovascular diseases due to sedentary life style such as less exercising, consumption of fast nutrient, and so on. Even though there are many available interventions, it will be a ball amount of money. Hence, the fiscal issues have been raised which included operation fees, expensive medicines, medical medical examinations and some follow-up interventions after the coronary beltway surgery. Furthermore, the operation fees for coronary beltway surgery entirely costs about RM 40000 in Damansara Specialist Hospital16. This indirectly will be a heavy load for those hapless patients. They might confront troubles to pay the measures if undergo the surgery. Therefore, the authorities might hold to subsidize for those hapless patients. Some people might reason that those subsidies should put in other Fieldss such as health cares and infrastructures instead than intervention for myocardial infarction. Nevertheless, I believe that this controversial statement can be overcome if the authorities can equilibrate their investings. Although the fee is expensive, it is deserving as it can alleviate the symptoms of myocardial infarction such as angina in patients.

^*The difference of normal and unnatural coronary arterias

CUMULATIVE WORD COUNT: 1110On the other manus, the societal issues will besides emerge as the patients undergo coronary beltway surgery. The quality of the household life will indirectly be affected because the household members are worrying about the fiscal jobs and the status of patients. There is besides a load for the household members to remain back in the infirmary to take care the patients as they might necessitate aids to execute day-to-day undertakings such as motions, imbibing, eliminations and eating after the surgery. Furthermore, some household members might even utilize illegal ways to acquire the money for the interventions which can endanger the harmoniousness in society. Therefore, it becomes a duty for the authorities to reexamine the cost of operation fees and directions in infirmary for the interest of citizens.

Personally, I think that the current cost of coronary beltway surgery demand to be reviewed to guarantee that all the citizens are able to afford the cost of surgery. Despite the fiscal facet, I strongly believe that the advantages of coronary beltway surgery outweigh its disadvantages. Sing the societal deduction, the household members can either take bend or engage a professional nurse to look after patients.

In a nutshell, those fiscal and societal deductions are besides happened in many developing states which do non hold sufficient allotments to farther better the health care field.


Benefits and Hazards

From my point of position, coronary beltway surgery is good because it can cut down the hazard from acquiring the myocardial infarction. Therefore, the people who die from myocardial infarction can be decreased. Furthermore, the patients will non necessitate to have the life-long interventions in the infirmary. The coronary beltway surgery will besides relief the symptoms such as thorax hurting. Besides that, the success rate for the coronary beltway surgery is reasonably high -about 98 percent19.

As is illustrated by the saloon chart, the figure of decease due to bosom diseases additions as the age group increases. It is clearly shown that the decease in females finally outnumbered than the decease in males as age group additions. In my position, I can do a generalisation about females are more prone to bosom diseases as the age group additions compared to males. This is because all females will menopause at the age above 75 old ages old. Before climacteric, there are certain endocrines in females which can cut down the hazard of acquiring cardiovascular diseases.


There are besides downsides to the coronary beltway surgery. The hazard of failure in coronary beltway surgery will alterations based on certain factors such as ages, wellness conditions, smoke, hapless bosom musculuss ‘ maps and others. For case, tobacco users are more likely to acquire blood coagulum in narrowed arteria than normal people. Apart from that, the lesion infections and unstable aggregations can happen at the scratchs and do the scratchs to open up once more. Furthermore, there might hold some complications during the surgery operations and after the surgery such as inordinate blood loss, kidney failure, infections and shot.

All in all, I strongly believe that the benefits of coronary beltway surgery evidently outweigh its ‘ hazards. In malice of little per centum of hazards, coronary beltway surgery really prevents the patients from enduring the symptoms of myocardial infarction. Last but non least, gastroepiploic arteria has the most possible to do inauspicious reverberations and seldom used for the grafting.


Non-surgical Options

Some people might non desire to take hazard to undergo surgery and hence will make up one’s mind on non surgical methods. I believe that those non-surgical methods can besides decelerate down the patterned advance to acquire myocardial infarction.

Balloon Angioplasty

Angioplasty is a technique of widening a narrowed blood vas manually. It performs when there is less terrible obstructions in the arterias. The process starts with catheter with its tip enclosed in stent inserted through a little cut in the tegument into blood vas. Low dosage of X ray is used to supervise the advancement and the folded balloon is inflated utilizing H2O force per unit area to crush the obstructions. Then, a coronary stents is inserted and expands inside a coronary arteria to forestall the arteria from shuting up once more. However, the disadvantage of angioplasty is the chance for the arteria to shut up once more is really high.

& gt ; *The simplism procedure of angioplasty

Anticoagulant Drugs

CUMULATIVE WORD COUNT: 1817It is besides known as blood dilutants to forestall blood coagulums which can barricade the blood vas to cut down the hazard for acquiring myocardial infarction. Anticoagulants such as Lipo-Hepin, Coumadin and others are normally given during angina or myocardial infarction to forestall blood coagulum from acquiring bigger and barricade the whole coronary arteria. If the coagulum enters the blood stream, it can do shot or intercalation. Besides that, anticoagulant drugs are besides given after angioplasty to assist cut down the ability of coagulum formation in the blood vas. Nevertheless, the side consequence of the drugs is terrible internal hemorrhage in the organic structure.

^*The anticoagulant drug- Coumadin tablet


Evaluation of Mentions

I used a non-profit organisation ‘s web site in United State – American Heart Association which is aimed to supply information about the myocardial infarction and available interventions to the users. The web sites is ever updated and most of the information are right, factual and agreed with other beginnings. Therefore, I decidedly believe that the American Heart Association will supply dependable information to me to make the background research on myocardial infarction. Apart from that, the web sites contain some cyberspace trustable Son which indicate the dependability of information as shown at below:

& gt ; *The respectives logos which indicate the sure web sites

On the other manus, I used the encyclopaedia, “ The Human Body in Health & A ; Diseases ” as my mention before I start my research on coronary beltway surgery. It is written by a celebrated writer, Thibodeau/Patton. On top of that, the information of that encyclopaedia had been supported with scientific groundss. I besides reaffirm the information in the book with other beginnings from Internet. Therefore, I think that my information in this study should be dependable as the web sites and encyclopedias that I used are clearly determined and filtered before I do my research on coronary beltway surgery.