MARINE FUNGI: GLYCOLIPIDOMICS
- Fungal glycolipidomics
- Glycoconjugates in fugal cell wall
- Fungal glycolipids exterior
- Marine fungous glycolipids
- Synthesis, isolation purification of fungous glycolipids
- Word picture and designation
- Application of fungous glycollipids
- Bio detergent
- Hydrocarbon debasement
- Medicinal value
Marine Fungis are saprophytic or heterotrophic signifier of filiform spore organizing eukaryote micro-organisms are extensively lives in the Marine or estuarial ecosystem. The word picture and diverseness of the marine Fungi can be studied by the direct observation of morphological construction and following coevals sequencing. Taxonomically characterized Marine Fungis are belongs to either facultative or obligate signifiers. Facultative signifiers are originally sourced from tellurian or fresh H2O part but they are able to colonise and follow with the Marine home ground and the obligate are extensively unrecorded in marine ecosystem ( Kohlmeyer and Kohlmeyer, 1979 ) . The Fungi are extensively reported for the several biotechnological applications industrial use in enzymes, natural merchandises and agribusiness biocontrol etc.
The Marine fungus are taxonomically distinguishable ( Jones et al. , 2009 ) , saline tolerant ( Jennings, 1986 ) , particular biochemical belongingss ( Damare et al. , 2006 ) . Interestingly, the Marine Fungis have the freshness than the obligate Fungis and attracts in applications of omics ( Damare et al. , 2012 ) . By and large, marine Fungi can be isolated from the food rich substrata such as disintegrating wood ( seaport ) , coral reef ( Le Campion- Alsumard et al. , 1995 ) , seagrases ( Thirunavkkarasu, 2011 ) and mangrove ecosystem ( Saravanakumar et al. , 2012 ) and deep sea dirt ( Damare, 2007 ) are enhance distinguishable diverseness of the obligate Fungi ( Sridhar, 2005 ) . Among the Marine substrate, Rhizophora mangle is an 2nd largest beginning for the isolation of obligate Marine Fungi ( Ragukumar 2004 ) . However, the biotechnological application of Marine Fungi differs with the tellurian Fungis due to their environmental versions and distributions. Many research focal point on biotechnological use of natural merchandises, enzymes, biocontrol, bioremediation, fuel preservation, waste direction by utilizing the Marine Fungi. A batch of structurally and pharmaceutically fresh metabolites, isolated from marine Fungi. However, this article focuses the glycollipids from the Marine Fungi and their belongingss, biological maps and applications.
Glycolipids are a structurally really heterogeneous group of membrane edge compound nowadays in all life procaryotic and eucaryotic organisams to human cells. The term of “glycolipid” is a compound contains one or more monosaccharoses glycodidically linked in to a lipid ( Brandenburg and Holst, 2005 ) . Glycolipids are an indispensable component of cellular membrane and have the singular biological maps of cell collection or dissociation act as receptor of accepter to supply the contact. Several glycolipids has of import function in immune system.
The glycolipids are interesting group of the compound occurred in cell wall of animate beings, bugs and works beginnings ( Pinto et al. , 2008 ) . The fungous glycolipids are composed of a sugar units normally glucose and galatose, hydrophobic ceramides, C19sphingoid, C-9 metyl braches and unsaturated linkages with hydroxyhexadecanoic acids ( Pinto et al. , 2008 ) .
Glycoconjugates in fugal cell wall
Glycoconjugates are composed of glycoprotins, peptides, glucons, polyoses, phosphorous acid, phospholipids, N and glycolipid molecules and found in the cell wall. Among the specifying features of fungal is cell wall complex architecture. Fungal cell walls are well thicker than bacterial cell walls and usually do up 10-30 % of the biomass. They are freely allowable to little molecules and solute conveyance system and signalling receptors remains in cell membrane. A different cell wall found in the Fungi comparing to animate beings and the function of these walls includes osmotic support, selective permeableness and interaction with environment ( Conzalexz et al. , 2009 ) . Fungal walls consist of covalently cross linked polyoses of ?-glycans and Chitin and several polyoses are covalently transverse linked through glycosidic bonds ( Pinto et al. , 2008 ) .
Fungal glycolipids exterior
By and large, the glycolipid molecules are found in cell membrane of all eucaryotic cell membranes, are incorporating the sugar called as glycolipids besides biologically produced biosurfactants are called as glycolipids. However, all type of glycolipids are biosurfactants but non all the biosurfactants are glycolipids ( Mukherjee et al. , 2006 ; Khopade et al. , 2012 ) . Simplest glycolipids contain the one or more sugars ( Fig. ) and complex glycolipids such as gangliosides contain a subdivision concatenation with several sugars. Cell membranes of the Fungis have the many types membrane and are assembled from four compounds such as ( I ) phospholipids molecules, ( two ) transmembrane proteins, ( three ) inerter protein web, and ( four ) cell surface markers are non indistinguishable. The glycolipids are formed in the cell wall of Fungis by glycosylation in endoplasimic reticulam ( ER ) membrane subdivisions and reassign the Golgi composite followed by plasma membrane ( Fig ) . These add the sugar molecules concatenation to lipids called the sugar surfacing lipoids that extents the exterior of fungous cells and differences were identified in glycolipids among fungous species and used as cell surface bed or marker besides glycolipids are besides compound of the fatty acids contain saccharides, and nitrogen non phosphoric acids includes the certain compounds of the gangliosides, sulfolipids and salfatids ( Pinto et al. , 2008 ) . The glycolipids are a marker for the cell designation of cell surface alterations and are functioning as cardinal edifice blocks of Fungi, energy molecule or shop, constituent of membrane components, signal molecule to interact the environmental compounds in through outer matrix, lectins, growing factor, and a possible factor of pathogenesis and immune responses ( Hakomori, 1990 ; Springer and Lasky, 1991 ; Pinto et al. , 2008 ) . Furthermore, the item mechanism of function and belongingss of the glycolipids in fungus remain ill-defined.
Marine fungous glycolipids
Research on glycolipids from the marine resources has expanded the due attending due to its possible freshness in biotechnological applications. Muralidhar et al. , ( 2003 ) have been reviewed the glycolipids from the marine resources such as algae ( Lo et al. , 2001 ) , micro-organisms: bacteriums ( Batrakov et al. , 1998 ) , fungi ( Abraham et al. , 1994 ) , barms ( Zinjarde and pant, 2002 ) , actionbacteria ( Kokare et al. , 2007 ) , sponges ( pettit et al. , 1999 ) , gorgonians ( Shin and Seo, 1995 ) , sea windflowers ( Sugita et al. , 1994 ) , polyzoans ( Ojika et al. , 1997 ) , tunicates ( Loukaci et al. , 2000 ) , marine segmented worm ( Noda et al. , 1992 ) , leading fish ( Sugiyama et al. , 1988 ) , sea Cucumis sativus ( Higuchi et al. , 1994 ) , sea urchin ( Babu et al. , 1997 ) crinoids ( Arao et al. , 1999 ) , molluscs ( Yamaguchi et al. , 1992 ) , and marine crab ( Asai et al. , 2000 ) .
In tellurian Fungus, in general barms have glycolipids as major components and are non the major compound in more fungous species. However, a high Glycolipids content of 11-16 % of entire lipoids inBlastocladiella emersonii, the major compound of glycollipid is GalDAG and Gal2DAG ( Mills and Cantino, 1974 ) . The 61- 48 % of glycolipids is found in mycelia ofMacrophomina phaseolineand the lower in the Sclerotium ( 14-62 % ) . However the glycolipids concentrations varied harmonizing the components of agitation medium. The major compound of the fungous glycolipids identified as GalDAG and Gal2DAG based structural word picture. Further the major glycolipids of Fungi is glycosphingolipids and D- glucosylceramides ( Weete, 1980 ) . Galactocerebrosides has been found in fungous species, ofAspergillus miger, C.utilisandS. cerevisae( Wagner and Zofcsik, 1969 ) . Besides the fungous speciesFusarium lini, Phycomycetes blakesleeanusand mushrooms are known to bring forth the glycolipids ( Weiss et al. , 1973 ) . Subsequently, the glycolipids are widely studied fromTorulaspora delbruecki,Saccharomyes cerevisae, Candida glabrata, Kluyveromyesyarrowii,F. pedrosoiandK. Polyporus( Saito et al. , 2006 ; Pinto et al. , 2008 ) . The long concatenation sphingadinene has been foremost reported fromAspergillus oryzae( Fujino and Ohishi, 1976 ) and later fromSchizophyllum commune( Ballio et al. , 1979 ) ,Fusicoccum amygdale( Ballio et al. , 1979 ) ) ,Clitocybe geotropeandAspergillus fumigatus( Villas Boss et al. , 1994 ) ,C. nebularis( Fodegel et al. , 1986 ) ,A. Niger( levery et al. , 2000 ), A. versicolor( Walenkamp et al. , 1999 ), Candida albicans( Matsubara et al. , 1987 ), Acremonium chrysogenum( Sakaki et al. , 2001 ), Cryptococcus neoformans( Rodrigues et al. , 2000 ), Colletotrichum gloeosporioides( de Silva et al. , 2004 ), Fonsecaea pedrosoi( Nimrichter et al. , 2005 ), Hansenula Anomala( Ng et al. , 1977 ), Fusariumsp. ( Duarte et al. , 1998 ) ,Histoplasma capulatum( Toledo et al. , 2001 ), Kluyeromyces waltii( Takakuwa et al. , 2002 ),paracoccidioidesbrasiliensis( Takahahi et al. , 1996 ), Magnaporthe grisea( Koga et al. , 2006 ), Pichia pastoris( Sakaki et al. , 2001 ), Saccharomyces klyuyveri( Takakuwa et al. , 2002 ) ,Pseudallescheria boydii( Pinto et al. , 2002 ) ,Termitomyces albuminosus( Qi et al. , 2002 )Sporothrix schenkii( Toledo et al. , 2001 ) .
In marine Fungis, really few surveies are available on glycolipids of Marine Fungi ( Table.1 ) ; the marine white putrefaction Marine FungiNia whiskeris manufacturer of glycolipids with repressive activity, the binding of endotoxin Lipopolysaccharide ( LPS ) to human endotoxin receptor ( Helmholz et al. , 1999 ) . Marine FungiGliocladium roseumKF-1040 is a manufacturer of Roselipins can suppress the enzyme diacylglycerol acyl transferase ( Omura et al. , 1999 ; Tomada et al. , 1999 ; Tabata et al. , 1999 ) . Glycolipids derived from Marine barmsCalyptogena soyoae, Yarrowia lipolyticaare effectual on debasement of hydrocarbon ( Zinjarde and pant, 2002 ; Konishi et al. , 2010 ) . Glycolipids synthesised form filiform endosymbioticAspergillus ustushas the important antimicrobic activity ( Kiran et al. , 2009 ) . Several marine fungus such asPenicillumsp. F23-2 ( Sun et al. , 2009 ) ,Linincola laevis( Abraham et al. , 1994 ) ,Fusariumsp ( Li et al. , 2002 ) andMicrosphaeropsis olivacea( Keugen et al. , 1996 ) are significantly produced the glycolipids with unknown application.
Synthesis, isolation purification of fungous glycolipids
Application of fungous glycollipids
In Fungis ; glycolipids are characterized as bioactive metabolites.