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Jason to define a network that is

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Jason Diaz

Chapter 1:

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          3. The main difference between local area networks (LANs) and wide area networks (WANs) lies in in the name. LANs tend to define a network that is small (e.g. a school, business, home), while WANs tend to cover broader areas (e.g. cities, countries). Data tends to transfer faster in LANs versus WANs while also have fewer errors occur along the way. This can occur due to the fact that LANs are typically in close proximity or due to the fact that LAN usually gets less traffic than WANs. The backbone networks (BNs) is what connects various networks or certain parts of networks. This provides an exchange of data across multiple networks. On the internet, the backbone is the largest data connection.

          8. The seven layers of the OSI network model are as follows. (The list tends to be in the opposite order but for my sake, I’ll be doing bottom to top)

                   1. Physical- as the name implies this layer has to do with the specifications on carrying and receiving signals and tends to do with physical mediums such as wiring.

                   2. Data Link-  this layer has to do with the transfer of data frames from node to node, avoiding errors for future layers. It controls the frames allowing data to pass through only if space is available. Establishes boundaries and links while also terminating those not needed by nodes.

                    3. Network- decides which path is best to take to transfer the data based on various factors (e.g. priority, the condition of the network). This layer is seen as the traffic control.

                   4. Transport- this layer pieces data together and makes sure they are received error-free and in sequence. It can split data into smaller parts for future layers. It also keeps track of messages that pertain to different sessions.

                   5. Session- this allows different machines to establish a connection which are labeled as sessions. Also establishing communication over the network for the computers.

                   6. Presentation- This layer tends to be the translator which and performs character code translation and conversion of data for the network. It is also responsible for compressing and encrypting data.

                   7. Application- here is the final layer that serves the users and applications to process and access network services. This is where you find files, resources, access and distribute messages. It is also where the user end network management takes place.

          10. Messages typically start in the application layer by the user. The network layer takes that data and makes sure its small enough to process and decides the best route for it to take. Then the data link layer forms the order by linking the data making sure there are no errors. The physical layer then receives the data which transmits it over the network from one end to the other. Then the message is received.

Chapter 2:

          4. Middleware is software that allows a connection between the operating system and applications. To better explain it allows data (e.g. input/output) to be passed between the computer and the programs. In a sense, a backbone of software.

          10. The three-top cloud computing service models are as follows. Software as a Service (SaaS), as the name implies this is mainly based on consumer entrusting the provider with their data. The Provider must manage everything from operating systems to infrastructure and overall storage. Platform as a Service (PaaS), is similar to SaaS but only allows the consumer control over their configuration of infrastructure and settings for the cloud environment. Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), is the most complex of the three its allows overall control of the cloud to the consumer except the providers’ cloud infrastructure (but the consumer does have control over their cloud infrastructure).

          17. SMTP – (simple mail transfer protocol) has the role of transmitting messages from server to server keeping its format needing an e-mail client to retrieve the message (e.g. POP, IMAP)

                   POP- (post office protocol) is the retrieval process used by email clients. It’s an older process and tends to be the least popular today because it downloads messages onto a computer and the same computer must be used to access those messages. Though there has been a reemergence of interest with a new protocol POP3. 

                   IMAP- (internet mail access protocol) this tends to be the new way of accessing mail. It allows for access to mail across multiple devices. This could be a computer but also phones.

Chapter 10:

          3. IXP (internet exchange point) is where network providers connect their physical network access points. This tends to make it easier for traffic to exchange on different networks. This leads to higher speeds and fewer errors.

          5. A reason why one might experience long response times in getting a web page from a server in their own city could be because of high traffic on the server. During local tax season, one might see this. If a lot of people log online requesting a page and the server cannot handle the traffic it could cause lag on the user end.

          18. The IETF (Internet engineering task force) was created to be an open voluntary group that set out to create Internet standards with a focus on protocols. They have set many standards in the past using the IRTFs help. IRTF (internet research task force) is in charge of, as the name implies, gathering research about the internet and technology. This research tends to help promote better engineering and as previously mentioned better standards brought together by the IETF.

          21. GigaPOP (gigabit point of presence) is a point of access to Internet2. Internet2 is a network used by schools, researchers, government agencies, and communities or parties alike. A GigaPOP allows for data to travel at high speeds from 1 Gigabit per second up to 10 Gigabits per second. Those speeds are 100 to 1000 times faster than regular internet.

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