INVASION invasion that the Huns invaded India.

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OF HUNS 455- 528

was about a century after the Kushanas invasion that the Huns invaded India.
After the death of the Emperor of Gupta, the Huns saw an opportunity and

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invasions from the Huns and other foreign conquerors over the period of time
reshaped the caste system of India that was also part of the ruling arrangement
of India and gave rise to the Rajputs. It was only a matter of time that the
Rajputs started to prove themselves in power. They had their families ruling
most of the norther and western India. The Rajputs had many division among them
such as some called themselves the descendents of sun, moon or fire.

Rajput Rulers had a sharp sense of enhancing the Art and Architecture and the
evidence of this is found in the creative greatness of their sanctuaries,
fortresses and royal residences. Design achieved a high level of masterful
magnificence in the eleventh and twelfth century AD. amid the governance of the
Chalukyas. The Pallavas presented the craft of uncovering sanctuaries from the
stone. Indeed, the Dravidian style of sanctuary engineering started with the

 The Indo-Aryan style of engineering created in
North India and Upper Deccan and the Dravidian style in South India amid the
Rajput time frame. The model and design of all the architecture was created to
the utmost perfection. The sanctuary engineering of Orissa, Khajuraho,
Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh in the South have a place with the later Rajput time
frame. The sanctuaries where specially made with intricate effort and had
little dim cells where the principle symbols where placed. The Khajuraho Temple
were constructed by the Chandela leader of Jejabhukti between 950 A.D.

Khandariya Mahadeva Temple is said to be one of the biggest landmark of
Khajuraho. It was worked between 1017 AD. – 1029 AD. in the rule of Vidyadhara
Chandela. Its grand storm cellar has intricately carved decorations of
elephants, steeds, seekers and so on. The sensual figures on its external
dividers demonstrate the impact of Tantrism. The inside plan of this sanctuary
resembles that of some other Khajuraho sanctuary however it is bigger and all
the more luxuriously formed.



political unsteadiness of a wealthy country like India always invited invasions
from foreign parties. The Arabs were also one of those who had a greedy eye on
the wealth prevailing in India. Their successful invasions in Syria, Perisa,
Eygpt and other places, where they went to spread Islam, gave them the
confidence to place their foot in India as well. The Arabs didn’t want to stop
the growth of Islam and wanted to destroy idolatry. Dahir, the ruler of India
at that time was disliked by many people and this led to fighting within the
country. All this fighting caused a lot of political instability and the Arabs
took full advantage of this.  One of the
more abrupt reasons that the Arabs conquered the region was because Dahir was
accused of stealing ships belonging to the Arab ruler, Hajaj. So, when
compensation was refused, he thought it was best to take revenge in such
manner. In his first two attempts, Hajaj failed, after which he gave the
responsibility of defeating Dahir to his nephew, Muhammad bin Qasim. Qasim made
his way towards Debel (near modern Karachi), with over 15000 animals laden with
equipment and a very large infantry (Sharma 2015). This defeat on Makrana coast
cemented the way for future Arab invasions in Sindh that were not successful

death of Muhmmad bin Qasim came as an order from the Caliph. Due to a political
conspiracy, the Caliph was led to believe that Qasim had betrayed him, so he
instantly ordered that Qasim were to be punished.  The Arabs were not able to hold the region for
long due to their own capital homeland being so far away so eventually the
Turks came in control of the region.



the time of expansion of the Islamic empire, many Turkish rulers also fought
amongst themselves for power. Mahmud Ghaznavi was the eldest son of Sabuktagin
and he inherited the throne in 997 AD. Mahmud Ghaznavi also wanted to overthrow
others in power and expand his region for which he thought of conquering India.
Not only that, he had planned to use the wealth of India to build himself a
more advanced army. Between the years 1000 to 1025 AD, Ghaznavi attacked different
Indian territories 17 times. Each time he was successful in defeating them and
looting their wealth. He defeated king Jiapal and then his son Andarpal because
they were proving to be a confrontation. During his attacks, he always used to
demolish all Hindu temples and idolatry monasteries that came in his way so
that he would also earn good reputation in terms of spreading Islam. This would
make him superior to all other Muslim rulers. Before invading the great temple
of Somnath, Ghaznavi had Gwalior, Punjab, Kashmir, Kanauj and other areas as
well. He died in 1030 AD, three years after his last invasion.


EMPIRE 1526-1858

Mughal era started with Babar taking control of the throne of Agra in 1526.
During his reign he kept on demolishing and destroying Hindu temples and
extending his empire. After his death in 1530, Hamayun came into power. His
command was cut short when the Afghan ruler Sher Khan came after him and
defeated Hamayun in 1539 at the battle of Chausa. After the defeat, Hamayun
retreated to Agra to gather more troops and then came after Sher Khan again. In
1540, they both fought against each other at the battle of Kanauj where Hamayun
was once again defeated. Sher Khan had captured Delhi and Agra and he
established Afghan rule in India.

was now gathering support in Kabul and Kandhar in order to attack once again. He
had enough troops and was able to settle in Delhi. Hamayun died leaving his 14-year-old
son, Akbar at the throne. The son of Sher Khan, Mahammad Adil Khan was planning
to attack the Mughals and take back Delhi since Hamayun had died. Akbar
defeated the Afghans at the second battle of Panipat. The Mughal rulers than
kept on taking place on the throne from Jahangir to the great Aurangzeb.

Mughal era engineering accomplished its most extreme magnificence in terms of
architecture. The remarkable highlights of Mughal design are the articulated
vault, thin turrets at the corners, the castle corridors bolstered on columns
and the Indo-Saracen entryway which appears as an enormous semi-vault soaked in
the front divider bearing an outstanding extent to the building while the
genuine passageway is a little rectangular opening under the curve.

and Humanyun made huge improvements in establishing the frameworks of the
Mughal building customs. The development of another capital city at Fatehpur
Sikri, twenty-six miles from Agra is the most living evidence of Akbar’s artistic
accomplishments in terms of architecture. He had different royal residences
that were an artistic sight constructed at Agra, Lahore and Allahabad. The artistic
senses weren’t only practiced in buildings but also in landscaping. For instance,
during Jahangir’s ruling period, Shalamar Bagh is the best example of garden
scaping. The extraordinary design generation of the later years of Jahangir’s
rule was his own particular catacomb at Shahdara close to the waterway Ravi of
Lahore. It was the rule of Shah Jahan that the Indo-Muslim style of engineering
achieved its incomparable glory. The use of marble and complex cutwork gave the
structures a look that was like nothing ever seen before. Taj Mahal and Red
stronghold at Agra, Moti mosque, Gulabi Bagh, the Chouburji and Shalimar Bagh
at Lahore are vital developments among such a significant number of mosques,
royal residences, patio nurseries, structures and catacombs worked under his
patronization. Alamgir did not fabricate such a large number of structures.
Badshahi Mosque at Lahore is, be that as it may, one of the finest preparations
of the Mughals amid his rule.

Mughals a very high regard for music and used to very patronizingly support and
promote it. Of the Mughal rulers Akbar, was the most charitable supporter of
music. There were around forty artists at his court who were orchestrated in
seven divisions one for every day in seven days. The most glorious musical gem
of that time was Tan Sen, who was granted two lacs of rupees after his first performance
in front of the Mughals. Baba Ram Das and Baz Bahadur were similarly recognized
for their achievements. Prominent artists from Mashed, Heart and Khurasan
enhanced music at the court. Amid the rule of Jahangir and Shah Jahan music
achieved a cleaned and a smooth concentration. Alamgir was not a very fond
promoter of music as he felt that it clashed with his religious beliefs, but
music prevailed and flourished among the privileged classes. There were various
books composed on the history and hypothesis of Indo-Muslim music amid his rule.

also religious writing was plentifully delivered in Persian and Arabic dialects.
Commonly the books that were produced these times consisted of the life and
doings of the Mughal rulers like Babur, Jahangir and others. The most famous
writer of Aurangzeb’s rule is Bedil. Abul Fazl was a noteworthy political philosopher
whose works like Akbar nama and others presented the Mughal era administration
in a very praiseworthy manner. The later Mughal period saw the ascent of Urdu
dialect and genuinely traditional time of Urdu exposition and verse. Urdu was relatively
not liked nor practiced in the territorial courts of the Southern India and
Northern India.



1700, the development of a new empire had started that nobody has expected. The
British had started trade in India just like the French and Portuguese. The
conquest of the British was not something that was prearranged as they were
just businessmen who entered with the purpose of doing business. It was the
developments with time and the opportunities that came forward that led them
towards such an action of taking over. Since trade between other countries was
booming, the East India Company decided to initiate trade with India for things
like cotton, spices etc. and the competition soon grew. The Portuguese set up
territories on the west coast mainly Goa and the French had secured

since the death of Aurangzeb, the Mughals that came after him to rule over the
empire were not as capable as Aurangzeb. The infighting grew and the
instability in the region continued to grow a well. This rising fall of the
empire of the Mughals did not go unnoticed by the British that were present in
India. Their participation in the battle of Plassey strengthened their
position. During all this fighting amongst the people of India, the regional
and cultural groups such as Marathas, Sikhs and Rajputs also presented to be a
problem, not just for each other but for the Mughal rulers too (Blackwell
2008).  The East India Company was making
progress in India quite a lot and this even impressed their superiors in
London. Their superiors decided that they would the loan that was requested by
the company in exchange for some goals that they company must achieve. They
were to make the Company the dominant power in India. The British had already
taken over most of the areas the were previously dominated by French traders
and they were further able to improve their infrastructure through the
employment of Indians in their works.

British were the longest residing and most successful among other Europeans
that came in India, that’s why they were the most influential ones too. The
Portuguese didn’t remain that long, but a hint of their culture can still be
seen in Goa specially. India was a place where no liberty or equal rights were
present. People lived under a Mughal rule and practices such as child
marriages, sati etc. were commonly seen. On the other hand, the British brought
with them fresh concepts of freedom and human rights. Those Indians that wanted
to adopt a more lavish and urban style of living, they were impressed by the
British ways and welcomed them.



Going through the history written and discovered later
by the historians as an evidence of the rich and diverse culture, traditions
and values, it is evident that the ancient history of this region of the world
called sub-continent which is now divided into different but influential
countries in the world is a treat and gift of the nature. It included locals
ruling the habitat and invaders over throwing the thrones of local rulers and
not only ruled for centuries but also expanded their rule which they started by
just conquering one area, whether it was in the northern sub-continent or south
part of it. History shows us that the civilization that was born here and the
one invaders carried with themselves straight to the sub-continent never died.
Invaders mostly shaped up the culture and values of the sub-continent but more
importantly the growth of religions.

Older faiths discovering new identity and religious
beliefs like Buddhism and Jainism started from nothing but a message from
individuals like Buddha. Later these believes taken to different heights by
their believers. Support by some and backlash from few rulers. It was all
happening in this region. Artists, Musicians, Sufis and Poets, they all helped
to create harmony and unity among the people. Diversity in religions, faiths
and civilization is what made the sub-continent surivive paradigm shifts in the

every invader, ruler, conqueror who came to the Sub-continent, came their own
culture. Over the period of time, so many various cultures left their mark on
the Subcontinent, specially India, that even to this day, India reflects a
little of all the contributors. The poetry, music, architecture and culture wouldn’t
be the same without the contributions from the Mughals, the Arabs, the Afghans,
the Rajputs or even the British.




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