Information technology and mis Essay


Information engineering ( IT ) and direction information systems ( MIS ) are interchangeable footings ( Kearns, 1997 ) . They are a set of interconnected computerized constituents that work together to roll up, recover, procedure, shop, and distribute information for the intent easing planning, control, coordination, analysis and decision-making in organisations ( Laudon & A ; Laudon, 1998 ) . In the foodservice industry IT is normally used for order processing, selling, accounting, and site choice of new restaurant units. Whether a little independent or portion of a big concatenation, many eating houses use established point of sale systems and accounting bundles to treat fiscal informations. The Study is running with to the full computerised and IS doctrine based so that the company is controlled in IT substructure and IS scheme will be described here for the future benefit of the company. By following models necessary in characterizing fullness, focal point and preparation, houses may be able to increase reason, while bring oning increased engagement and enhanced consistence. Bettering the planning rhythms of IS and SDLC ( System Development Life Cycle ) activities have besides been proven instrumental in heightening planning effectivity. In some instances, such difference manifests itself through policies to salvage all endeavor information indefinitely, or to cancel all informations after brief periods of clip. Traditional attacks to information direction are frequently designed to extenuate hazard ; houses respond to regulative and conformity demands. Information conformity investings, for illustration, should be cost-managed, as supplying conformity in extra by and large adds small value and can be an inhibitor. The information to reply such inquiries frequently exists within an organisation ‘s IT systems, and requires minimum attempt to reply one time the cardinal inquiries are identified by the senior executive squad and concern leaders. Answering cardinal inquiries frequently requires minimum information and investing. Using an experimental attack similar to statistical sampling can supply the replies to identify concern inquiries rapidly and dynamically.

Purposes And Purpose Of The Survey:

Many houses are concentrating on utilizing integrated databases and end-user computer science which some experts believe threatens the function of the ‘information supplier ‘ in administrations. However, suppliers of informations have parts to do associated with determination devising which are beyond merely construing or providing information. Some common decision-making-linked functions include easing a common database for group determinations ; providing attempt and expertness in garnering information ; and supplying audit trails of informations associated with certain determinations. Firms interested in maximizing the parts of ‘information suppliers ‘ are advised to clear up and integrate suppliers ‘ functions into the development of important information systems within houses

The detonation of informations is most evident in the kingdom of unstructured informations. As concerns strive to automatize procedures and extend the IT environment to the point of service, an of all time increasing sum of information is being retained electronically. Lowering the overall cost of ownership associated with storing and recovering a turning volume of structured informations assets is a challenge, and requires informations and content waiters that enable invention while presenting rock-solid dependability. Flexible storage options and the know-how to set it all together round out a solution that helps you leverage information — tonss of information.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!

order now
  • Deploy powerful waiters that scale to run into your turning demands.
  • Reduce the clip exhausted seeking for information.
  • Escalating information volumes set your substructure to the trial. Delivering high public presentation while take downing costs requires.

IBM solutions-simple, flexible and optimized-will aid you find the right content and acquire it to the right people and concern procedures at the right clip, so you can better efficiencies, addition reactivity, and addition greater penetrations into your clients, the market and your concern.

  • Leverage and analyze information on demand to optimise all minutess – in the call Centre or in the field, when assisting clients or when taking orders.
  • Overcome the complex architectural and serviceability issues associated with traditional informations warehouse and concern intelligence attacks.
  • Leverage information for competitory advantage and acquire more value out of your information

Understanding computing machine hardware

When you talk about computing machine hardware, you have to speak about the specifications. On a given desktop systems describe the velocity and capableness of that peculiar computing machine. If you are about to purchase a computing machine, you should at least understand plenty about each heading below to do an informed comparing between two different machines with different constellations.

CPU – cardinal processing unit

At the nucleus is the processor. Speed is measured in Mhz. One other parametric quantity of the CPU to look into is the L1 cache, normally from 256 Ks and up.

RAM – random entree memory

This determines how many files you can open at one time ; besides ram is a signifier of computing machine informations storage. So if random-access memory is high computing machine public presentation should be better.

Hard disc capacity

Difficult disc is measured in MB ( M ) or GB ( G ) . With the coming of so many mass-storage devices ( nothing thrust, CD-R, ace thrust, etc… ) and webs where files and applications can be archived, immense discs ( many GB ) are really ready to hand, but barely necessary for most users. No affair what size your difficult thrust, you should maintain it clean by weeding out outdated, redundant, and useless information ( files and booklets ) .

Cache memory

Check the upgradeability of your cache memory to ticket tune your computing machine. The cache memory is a particular type of RAM which the processor uses to hive away informations in while it is working. The degree 1 cache ( or L1 ) is physically located on the CPU bit ( and therefore can non be upgraded, unless you upgrade the CPU ) , whereas the degree 2 cache ( L2 ) is located on the motherboard, and can be upgraded individually.

Video card/VSA card

The sum of RAM and quality ( and figure ) of microprocessors on the picture card determine things like how large a proctor you can utilize, how big a window you can expose picture on, and the velocity with which big complex graphic images display. Some of the newer picture cards have 4 MB, 8 MB or more. Sometimes it is possible to upgrade a picture card by adding a artworks accelerator card instead than replacing the picture card with another newer version.

Sound card

The MIDI criterion is used to convey music from computing machine to computing machine, ( or keyboard to computing machine etc… ) and most good soundcards will play at least 32 MIDI voices. The other facet of a soundcard is how good it plays digital sound files ( like from a Cadmium ) . Most of them do this highly good besides. If you are interested in music or sound, you want to look into the package that comes bundled with your soundcard ( or whatever package you have purchased to work with your soundcard ) . Traditionally, the sound card besides has a port on it to stop up in your control stick ( s ) if you play games on the computing machine.

Removable storage

Choices range from 3.5 ” 1.44MB floppy thrusts, 100MB nothing thrusts, 120MB super thrusts, 650MB Compact disc recordable, and on up to 1.5GB removable difficult thrust cartridges and higher now. Of class there are 1000s of other picks including tape, optical thrusts, and certainly many more available. Remember to monetary value the storage media per Megabyte when purchasing. I personally like the CD-R thought since more people have CD-ROMs to read the recorded informations.

A programmable machine, two chief features of a computing machine are:

  • It responds to a specific set of instructions in a chiseled mode.
  • It can put to death a pre-recorded list of instructions ( a plan ) .

Modern computing machines are electronic and digital. The existent machinery — wires, transistors, and circuits — is called hardware ; the instructions and informations are called package.

A computing machine web is a aggregation of computing machines and devices connected to each other. The web allows computing machines to pass on with each other and portion resources and information. The Advanced Research Projects Agency ( ARPA ) designed “ Advanced Research Projects Agency Network ” ( ARPANET ) for the United States Department of Defence. It was the first computing machine web in the universe in late sixtiess and early 1970s.

Computers can be by and large classified by size and power ; as follows, though there is considerable convergences:

Personal computing machine: A little, single-user computing machine based on a microprocessor. In add-on to the microprocessor, a personal computing machine has a keyboard for come ining informations, a proctor for exposing information, and a storage device for salvaging informations.

Workstation: A powerful, single-user computing machine. A workstation is like a personal computing machine, but it has a more powerful microprocessor and a higher-quality proctor.

Minicomputer: A multi-user computing machine capable of back uping from 10 to 100s of users at the same time.

Mainframe: A powerful multi-user computing machine capable of back uping many 100s or 1000s of users at the same time.

Supercomputer: An highly fast computing machine that can execute 100s of 1000000s of instructions per second.

Computer networking is the technology subject concerned with communicating between computing machine systems or devices. A computing machine web is any set of computing machines or devices connected to each other with the ability to interchange informations.

  • Local country web ( LAN ) , which is normally a little web constrained to a little geographic country.
  • Wide country web ( WAN ) that is normally a larger web that covers a big geographic country.
  • Wireless LANs and WANs ( WLAN & A ; WWAN ) are the wireless equivalent of the LAN and WAN.

Difference & A ; Analysis Between IS And IT

In a general sense, the term Information System ( IS ) refers to a system of people, informations records and activities that process the information and information in an organisation, and it includes the organisation ‘s manual and machine-controlled procedures. In a narrow sense, the term information system ( or computer-based information system ) refers to the specific application package that is used to hive away informations records in a computing machine system and automates some of the information-processing activities of the organisation.

Information engineering ( IT ) , as defined by the Information Technology Association of America ( ITAA ) , is “ the survey, design, development, execution, support or direction of computer-based information systems, peculiarly package applications and computing machine hardware. ” IT deals with the usage of electronic computing machines and computing machine package to change over, shop, protect procedure, transmit, and firmly retrieve information.

The new information engineering ( IT ) substructure: The new IT substructure links desktop workstations, web computing machines, LANs, and server computing machines in an endeavor web so that information can flux freely between different parts of the organisation. The endeavor web may besides be linked to booths, point-of-sale ( POS ) terminuss, PDAs and information contraptions, digital cellular telephones and PCS, and nomadic calculating devices every bit good as to the Internet utilizing public substructures. Customers, providers, and concern spouses may besides be linked to the organisation through this new IT substructure.

Understand Computer-Aided tools

Computer-Aided Software Engineering ( CASE ) , in the field of Software Engineering is the scientific application of a set of tools and methods to package which is meant to ensue in high-quality, defect-free, and maintainable package merchandises. It besides refers to methods for the development of information systems together with machine-controlled tools that can be used in the package development procedure.

The term “ Computer-aided package technology ” ( CASE ) can mention to the package used for the machine-controlled development of systems package, i.e. , computing machine codification. The CASE maps include analysis, design, and programming. CASE tools automate methods for planing, documenting, and bring forthing structured computing machine codification in the coveted scheduling linguistic communication.

This is the theoretical account for an excess cyberspace.

IS ( information system ) design for a nomadic phone company:

As I have to plan one company ‘s IS design I pick the phone company. In this IS design everything is shown as far I know. This nomadic company will be connected intranet system to every section. We know that intranet system will work with the internal system. With the intranet system every section will be really helpful as if they need any information they can easy acquire via the computing machine. Besides they need the personal computer to every section. It is besides connected to the cyberspace to pass on. Using the cyberspace they besides benefitted to acquire the information. They need to construct up a web site where they can set all the information. So client relationship will be build via the cyberspace. Besides client can cognize the merchandise and offer via cyberspace.


a ) What information would you necessitate to do such determinations?

Strategic planning trades with the finding of the aims, resources, and policies of the organisation. In this instance, direction has their planning and control of their eating house concern. The system provides latest information on the nutrient points ordered and interruptions out per centums demoing gross revenues of each point versus entire gross revenues. This helps direction program menus harmonizing to clients ‘ gustatory sensations. The system besides compares the hebdomadal gross revenues sums versus nutrient costs, leting be aftering for tighter cost controls.

Managerial Control is one of the managerial maps like planning, forming, staffing and directing. It is an of import map because it helps to look into the mistakes and to take the disciplinary action so that divergence from criterions are minimized and stated ends of the organisation are achieved in coveted mode.

Control in direction agencies puting criterions, mensurating existent public presentation and taking disciplinary action. Therefore, control comprises these three chief activities.

In this instance, this system helps direction program menus harmonizing to clients ‘ gustatory sensations. The system besides compares the hebdomadal gross revenues sums versus nutrient costs, leting be aftering for tighter cost controls. In add-on, whenever an order is voided, the grounds for the nothingness are keyed in. This may assist later in direction determinations, particularly if the nothingnesss systematically related to nutrient or service.

Operational control serves to modulate the daily end product comparative to agendas, specifications, and costs.

The most hard undertaking of direction concerns supervising the behavior of persons, comparing public presentation to some criterion and providing wagess or penalty as indicated. Sometimes this control over people relates wholly to their end product. For illustration, a director might non be concerned with the behavior of a salesman every bit long as gross revenues were every bit high as expected. In other cases, close supervising of the salesman might be appropriate if accomplishing client satisfaction were one of the gross revenues organisation ‘s chief aims.

In this instance survey, credence of the system by the users is exceptionally high since the servers and waitresses were involved in the choice and design procedure. All possible users were asked to give their feelings and thoughts about the assorted systems available before one was chosen. This is their Operational control portion.

After analyzing this instance I find that latest information on the nutrient points ordered and interruptions out per centums demoing gross revenues of each point versus entire gross revenues. Whenever an order is voided, the grounds for the nothingness are keyed in. This may assist later in direction determinations, particularly if the nothingnesss systematically related to nutrient or service. And all possible users were asked to give their feelings and thoughts about the assorted systems available before one was chosen.

B ) What would do the system a more complete MIS instead than merely making dealing procedure?

This concern can be more MIS if direction provide and utilize more information related to the concern. This system helps direction to taka determination. Its ‘out of stoke ‘ procedure shows that which points is making more concern and which is making less. Then they can make up one’s mind which merchandise they need to stress more. End of month they can analyze the informations of four hebdomad.

Other characteristics such as order nothingness system cheque listing, point gross revenues, entire gross revenues, client sentiments etc. can do this system more complete MIS instead than dealing procedure.

degree Celsius ) Explain the likely effects that doing the system more formal would hold on the clients and the direction

A server takes an order at a tabular array, and so enters it on-line via one of the six terminuss located in the eating house dining room. The order is routed to a pressman in the appropriate readying country: the cold point pressman if it is a salad, the hot-item pressman if it is a hot sandwich or the saloon pressman if it is a drink. A client ‘s meal check-listing ( measure ) the points ordered and the several monetary values are automatically generated.

When the kitchen runs out of a nutrient point, the cooks send out an ‘out of stock ‘ message, whenever an order is voided, the grounds for the nothingness are keyed in. This may assist later in direction determinations, particularly if the nothingnesss systematically related to nutrient or service.

All possible users were asked to give their feeling and thoughts about the assorted systems available before one was chosen

Above mentioned maps make this system more formal on client and the direction.


a ) What security loopholes come to the bow in the state of affairs described? How can these be plugged?

If we plunged in to this instance we find that while measuring hardware and package demands, it was found that out of the 364 desktops at the corporate office ; more than half did non hold their antivirus package updated with recent virus signature files. Three – fourths had non changed the default e-mail watchword ( it was the user name ) and no 1 had installed OS spots. And one of its local mail waiters seemed to be an unfastened relay! For a fugitive minute, system director of SystemX wondered about the state of affairs at the seven subdivision offices across the state.

SystemX used the Net extensively in covering with its subdivisions, clients and providers. Information like contract paperss, selling programs, Cheque and Draft Numberss, bank history inside informations and aggregation inside informations were on a regular basis transmitted by electronic mail. These loopholes come into our head.

These loopholes can be plugged, if they update their antivirus which is virus signature files loose. Because they use e-mail, and Net extensively so they need strong security step in order to procure their system.

B ) What is the importance of a “security budget” in the context of the given state of affairs?

Security budget is one of the of import parts of every concern. In this context “Security Budget” is really of import. They need to supply security to their system. If director recommends for naming a new security adviser so it may non be granted because of budget. Any how they need to provider security.


a ) What systems propose that would function the company ‘s demand?

The multibase company limited has so many fabrication merchandises. It is really hard to command the whole company ‘s activities. On the other manus now it is the age of information engineering so we should utilize this engineering to everywhere. I propose that we can utilize the CBIS means computing machine base information system.

B ) Complete inspection and repair of the systems or add functionalities of the bing systems? Justify the line of action.

This company has a CBIS which are prepared the public presentation of every unit though hebdomadal and monthly studies. With this studies central office ever analyze and do the determination such as capacity enlargement, procurance of new engineering affecting significant investing, etc. This helps the companies be aftering and control.

degree Celsius ) Justify the demand of main information officer ( CIO ) in the context given instance Lashkar-e-Taiba.

The Congress of Industrial Organizations of the company has therefore propose to develop suited computing machine base systems which might be helpful in understanding the current position of assorted fabricating units in footings of their overall public presentation, the type of environment restraints that operate in the three concern that exist for heightening capacity in these concern countries.


a ) Is that digital systems are undependable and carries tremendous hazards?

Yes. It is. No digital system can be guaranteed to be _PERFECT_ and hence may hold any type of jobs. This is really because human existences are non perfect in their design and work.

B ) Explain three state of affairss to minimise amendss due to failure of digital system.

For instance 1: There should be dealing logging mechanism so that it can turn over back upon decision maker ‘s bid. A manual book-keeping can be used excessively for all types of minutess so that in instance of failure it can be used.

For instance 2: There should be manual communications used when digital systems hold for some ground.

For instance 3: Adequate communications with service users should take topographic point before upgrade policy. In all communicating channels there should be advertizements and assumed timeline for the likely catastrophe.

Decision Support Systems welcomes parts on the constructs and operational footing for DSSs, techniques for implementing and measuring DSSs, DSS experiences, and related surveies. In handling DSS subjects, manuscripts may dig into, draw-on, or spread out such diverse countries as unreal intelligence, cognitive scientific discipline, computing machine supported concerted work, informations base direction, determination theory, economic sciences, linguistics, direction scientific discipline, mathematical modeling, operations direction psychological science, user interface direction systems, and others. The common yarn of articles published in the diary will be their relevancy to theoretical, proficient DSS issues.

Group Decision Support Systems ( GDSS ) are a category of electronic meeting systems, a coaction engineering designed to back up meetings and group work. GDSS are distinguishable from computing machine supported concerted work engineerings as GDSS are more focussed on undertaking support, whereas CSCW tools provide general communicating support.

Group Decision Support Systems ( GDSS ) were referred to as a Group Support System ( GSS ) or an electronic meeting system since they shared similar foundations. However today ‘s GDSS is characterized by being adapted for a group of people who collaborate to back up incorporate systems believing for complex determination devising. Participants use a common computing machine or web to enable coaction.

Who is the typical user of the system presently?

For the organisation director chiefly takes the determination. Suppose to open a new history there should be some standards ( recognition mark ) . It is besides used in agribusiness subdivision. Dss is well-established tradition within agribusiness. Holsapple takes a different position. “ Decision-support systems are so permeant in their usage that people do n’t even believe of them as DSS, ” he says. He points to the spreadsheet as one of the most common 1s used in concern today. And, he says, most executives use corporate planning tools with DSS capablenesss in them.

Graphical User Interface Design Process For The Decision

Support System

In general, the GUI design procedure can be split into 12 stairss ( Galitz, 1997 ) :

1. Know your user

2. Understand the ‘business map

3. Use good screen design

4. Choose the proper types of Windowss

5. Develop the system bill of fare

6. Choose the proper device-based controls

7. Choose the proper screen-based controls

8. Form and layout the Windowss

9. Choose the proper screen colorss

10. Make meaningful icons

11. Supply meaningful messages

12. Trial, trial, and retest

Following the design procedure, a questionnaire was prepared to better understand the ‘typical ‘

environmental professional who would be utilizing the GUI. Questions were divided into several

Classs: computing machine hardware and package literacy, user profile, and speak analysis. Some of the inquiries, although basic in nature, were required to determine the type of computing machine runing system to plan for and the types of support system that would be incorporated in the design.

I am non utilizing any darmstadtium system for my academic calling yet. But it will be really helpful to utilize in my future calling.

Questions no




Employee name:

Employer name:

Work topographic point reference:

Work telephone no:

Job rubric:

No of old ages on current occupation:

Old ages of computing machine experience:

Md. Ayub Ali

Saleh Z Rahman

12th floor, national lookout bhobon, kakrail, Dhaka-1000.


Chief package designer and developer.

Five months

10 year


What sort of computing machine system do you utilize?

Apple MacBook Laptop, Mac OSX Leopard, programming package ( compiler ( gcc ) and other Unix system disposal tools ) , pressman, Scanner, Mobile phone ( for Internet through it ) , Apple Time Capsule ( for backup ) , etc.


What sort of preparation have you received in order to utilize computing machine system efficaciously?

Make you happen the IT proficient staff in your house to be helpful and easy to work with?

I have received B.Sc. in computing machine scientific discipline and Engineering from a reputed university. I am self scholar for utilizing computing machine systems efficaciously. Our IT Technical Staff are helpful.


What concern procedures are supported by the IT systems in your workplace?

Structured theoretical account of package development.


How does direction utilize the IT system to back up their activities?

Management usage intranet and cyberspace to back up their activities.


Is your system portion of a web?

Who is the web decision maker?

How frequently do you interact with the decision maker?

What kinds of issues do you discourse with the decision maker?

Yes, my system is portion of a web. We have more than one web in our office. I am web decision maker. There is different system decision maker. I do n’t interact with system decision maker that much. Very rare instance I need him work out jobs. Chiefly we discuss about Internet connectivity issues with system decision maker.


Are your computing machine systems connected to your clients, providers or spouses?

Describe how the system is used to link to these entities.

Our workstations are non connected to clients. But our waiters are connected to mobile operators for supplying services to clients. The waiters are connected to operators via the Metronet web who provides connectivity with all major nomadic companies and content/service suppliers.


As your calling has progressed, what changes in IT have you noticed and how have these alterations in IT contributed to your public presentation?

Every clip IT is altering as the new engineering comes. So at that place necessitate to be trained for the new engineering.


Has utilizing the computing machine system at work influenced your life outside of work?

What manner?

Yes, my work has influenced my life outside of work. I have learnt how the telecommunication systems work and how services are provided to clients. Besides I learnt how the communicating between operator and service suppliers are established.


What advice would you give to a new employee about the IT supported workplace?

The new employee should hold avidity to larn the implicit in system good to supply good service to clients. Besides he should be difficult working and should be habituated to self-learning.


Which service supplier do you utilize for cyberspace?



What is internet rate of communicating velocity?

10-20 kbps.


Which hunt engine do you utilize?



Do you like to utilize cyberspace for online concern dealing?

Yes. But security issue is chief job here.


Do you believe cyberspace is indispensable for day-to-day life or non?

Yes. Everyday life cyberspace is really indispensable. I can pass on via electronic mail trough the universe.

The assignment is divided into four parts. All the four parts is done in here. I have done this assignment by utilizing the books, talks and from web sites.