Menu

Inductive a list of sentences taken out

Inductive Approach

 The first lesson was devised according to
Ellis’ suggestions (1993) in order to encourage learners with the help of the
teacher to try and discover the grammar rules governing Present Simple
affirmative. This involved a story presented in a PowerPoint presentation
giving the daily routines of two children, Susan and her brother. An effort was
made to use contextualized language containing sentences with the present
simple based on which the students would derive the rules. In the story Susan
was first talking about her daily routines thus using the 1st person and then
she presented her brother’s daily routines in order for the 3rd person use to
be shown. After the presentation students were asked questions about Susan and
her brother. Later on, Ellis’ consciousness raising tasks were put into
practice. Ellis (1993:11) suggests that:

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

 
“… we might supply the learner with a list of sentences that illustrate
two different    grammatical structures
or two different uses of the same structure and ask them    to sort them into two sets and then explain
how the differ.” 

The students were given a list of
sentences taken out of the text and were asked to divide them into two groups
according to who was talking (I/he) thus focusing on the differences between
the two forms of the verbs. The next activity involved students pairing the
sentences that included the same verb, the one in the first person and the
other in the third. This activity helped in deriving the rules for the
formation of 3rd person singular and the students’ discovery of the cases in
which –s/–es/–ies   occurred.  The second lesson aimed at giving the
students the opportunity to put the rules they had derived into practice. For
this reason a song was used which was taken from a course book (Freddy and
Friends A). The song was presented in animated form with the character singing
in the 1st person about what he does every morning. The students were given the
lyrics of the song and they sang along. Later, the students were asked to
change the lyrics of the song reporting what Freddy (he) does every morning. In
this way they used the 3rd person formation without being informed they were
actually doing a grammar exercise but at the same time they were focusing on
structure.  The next activity asked of
the students to fill in the gaps with the correct form of the verb given in
brackets according to who was talking. Again, here two characters were used and
it presented a story about two children’s daily routines. In this activity, all
the persons were used (I/you/he/she/it/we/they). When encountered with the
persons other than I/he students had to infer the rule drawing on their
previous conclusions. Thus, they also derived that the endings –s/-es/-ies
applied only for the 3rd person singular. 
Finally, the last activity presented the students with pairs of
sentences and they had to decide whether they were correct/incorrect and they
justified their answers.

  

 

 

 

Deductive Approach

  The deductive lesson included giving the
rules beforehand to the students. The lesson followed the P-P-P model
(Presentation-Practice-Production) a well-known deductive technique. The
teacher started the lesson by informing the students about the grammatical
phenomenon that was going to be discussed. Then, she explained that the present
simple is used to talk about daily routines and gave an example “I play
football everyday” on the board. The next step involved the conjugation of the
verb on the board by the teacher. Emphasis was given on the 3rd person singular
(-s) and the rule was straightforwardly given to the students. After that, the
teacher explained that there are some exceptions to that rule and she provided
the –es/-ies cases. Subsequently, the text on present simple was given and read
by the teacher. It was asked of the students to find the sentences containing
the third person changes.    In order for
the students to better acquire the rule an activity was handed out in which the
students had to transform sentences in the 1st person to the 3rd person
singular. Upon completion of the first activity the students were presented
with pairs of sentences in a handout and they were asked to underline the
correct sentence and justify their answers. This way, the teacher tried to
understand whether the rule was understood and also had the opportunity to
revise the rule once more.  The second
lesson began with the same song that was used in the inductive lesson. The song
was presented in animated form with the character singing in the 1st person
about what he does every morning. The students were given the lyrics of the
song and they sang along. Later, the students were asked to change the lyrics
of the song using the 3rd person formation and at the same time being informed
they were doing a grammar exercise of Present Simple.  The next activity asked of the students to
fill in the gaps with the correct form of the verb given in brackets according
to who was talking. Again, here two characters were used and it presented a
story about two children’s daily routines. In this activity, all the persons
were used (I/you/he/she/it/we/they). When encountered with the persons other
than I/he students were reminded of the rules. The lesson plans can be viewed
in Appendices IV and V. Post Test The two lessons presented earlier were
devoted to the instruction and further processing of the new grammatical
feature and a third one consisted of a test (Appendix VII) designed to assess
whether students had acquired the phenomenon under examination. An effort was
made for the post-test to have a variety of types of exercises and not to
include any unfamiliar activities to ensure content validity. At the same time
a checklist (Appendix VI) was designed for the teacher which served the purpose
of clarifying whether the results had been affected by extraneous factors. The
checklist was given back to the experimenters upon completion of the lessons
following the double blind technique to ensure that there would not be any
biases from the experimenters. The results of the post-test were used to
examine whether there were significant differences between the two groups. The
information provided by the checklist was used in order to identify whether
possible previous instruction affected the students’ performance.

x

Hi!
I'm Viola!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out