India got its independence from Britishers in 1947 who ruled India for over 190 years. First through East India Company, and then British Raj was esstablished. What led British to take over India? India was a country of diversities viz-a- viz: Poverty, richnes, religions, races, languages and dilects. India was a huge country which had Bangladesh and Pakistan part of it before 1947. Before Britishers India was ruled by Mughals untill 1200AD and then Emperical powers like Dutches, French and Portgese started winning territories from Mughls in separate sections of India.
The Indian population was huge; they demanded independence and started movements while only a few Brits were ruling the masses. The movement consisted of various national and regional campaigns, agitations and efforts. It happened in all areas through political organizations, philosophies and movements which had the common aim to ending the company rule, and British raj. The Rebellion of 1857 was a large scale rebellion in northern and central India against the British East India Company’s rule. It was suppressed and the British government took control of the company.
The first organized militant movements were in West Bengal, but they later took to the political stage in the form of a mainstream movement in the newly formed Indian National Congress (that party is ruling India now) with prominent leaders seeking only their basic rights to appear for Indian Civil Services Exams, more rights, some economic in nature, for the people of the soil. Many of the country’s political leaders of the 20th century, including Mahatma Gandhi, Netaji Subhash Chander Bose and Bhagat Singh led the country.
The early part of the 20th century saw a more radical approach towards political independence proposed by other national leaders. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi had been a prominent leader of the Indian nationalist movement in South Africa and had been a vocal opponent of basic discrimination and abusive labor treatment as well as suppressive police control such as the Rowlatt Act (1921). Gandhi emerged from his long seclusion by undertaking his most famous campaign, a march of about 240 miles from his commune, on the coast of Gujarat between 11 March and 6 April 1930.
The march is usually known as the Salt March or the Salt Satyagraha in protest against British taxes on salt. He and thousands of followers broke the law by making their own salt from seawater. It took 24 days for him to complete this march. Every day he covered 10 miles and gave many speeches. In April 1930 there were violent police-crowd clashes in Calcutta. At that time you could see the increasingly violent antagonism between Muslims and Hindus, both of whom detected in the distance, the emergence of a power vacuum they rushed to fill.
This violence included the “Great Calcutta Killing” of August 1946, when at least 400,000 people died in three days. And approximately 100,000 people were imprisoned in the course of the Civil disobedience movement (1930–31). The ban upon the Congress was removed because of economic hardships caused by the satyagraha. Gandhi, along with other members of the Congress Working Committee were released from prison in January 1931. Gopal Krishna Gokhale, a veteran Congressman and Indian leader became Gandhi’s mentor. Gandhi’s ideas and strategies of non-violent civil disobedience initially appeared impractical to some Indians and Congressmen.
In Gandhi’s own words, “civil disobedience is civil breach of unmoral statutory enactments. ” It had to be carried out non-violently by withdrawing cooperation with the corrupt state. Gandhi returned to India, on 6 January 1915 and initially entered the political skirmish not with calls for a nation-state, but in support of the unified commerce-oriented territory that the Congress Party had been asking for. Gandhi believed that the industrial development and educational development that the Europeans had brought with them were required to alleviate many of India’s problems.
In March 1931, the Pact was signed, and the government agreed to set all political prisoners free (although some of the key revolutionaries were not set free and the death sentence for Bhagat Singh and his two comrades was not taken back which further intensified the agitation against Congress not only outside it but within the Congress itself). In return, Gandhi agreed to discontinue the civil disobedience movement and participate as the sole representative of the Congress in the second Round Table Conference, which was held in London in September 1931. However, the conference ended in failure in December 1931.
Gandhi returned to India and decided to resume the civil disobedience movement in January 1932. In 1937, elections were held and the Congress came to power in eight of the eleven provinces. This was a strong indicator of the Indian people’s support for complete Independence. When WWII started Britain had unilaterally declared India a belligerent on their side without consulting the elected Indian representatives. However many wanted to support the British war effort, and indeed the Brit India Army with volunteer forces numbering 2,500,000 men during the war.
Gandhi resisted calls for massive civil disobedience movements that came from within as well as outside his party, stating he did not seek India’s freedom out of the ashes of a destroyed Britain. In 1942 the Congress launched the Quit India movement. The Quit India Movement (August Movement) was a civil disobedience movement in India launched on August 9th 1942 in response to Gandhi’s call for immediate independence of India and his unwillingness against sending Indians to World War II. He asked all the teachers to leave their school, and other Indians to leave away their respective jobs and take part in this movement.
Due to Gandhi’s political influence, request was followed by a massive proportion of the population. And another major cause of Gandhi’s independence movement in India was the fact that the British had colonized India and were ruling it for the benefit of Britain rather than for the benefit of the Indians. They also tended to keep essentially all the top jobs in the government for British only, regardless of the qualifications of Indians. British rule grew more and more annoying to Indians over the years, especially as more of them became educated.
On 3 June 1947, Viscount Mountbatten the last British Governor announced the partitioning of British India into India and Pakistan. With the speedy passage through the British Parliament of the Indian Independence Act of 1947; at 11:57 Pakistan was declared a separate nation, and at 12:02, just after midnight, on 15 August 1947, India also became an independent nation. Following Independence, India remained in the Commonwealth of Nations, and relations between the UK and India have been friendly. There are many areas in which the two countries seek stronger ties for mutual enefit, and there are also strong cultural and social ties. Better late than never, India finally had the freedom to call the country their own and not be slave to some tiny island nation. India is self sufficient in food. It has handled the recession better than the western nations. The economy is a growing one, so definitely India has come a long way from what it was in 1947. Then, its independence had a major effect on world history India was the pearl of the British Empire, without it the Empire was destined to end, no way. So we can say that the “departure” of India was the final chapter of the history of the British Empire.