India Congress in the last month of
India witnessed full color of national political consciousness and growth of organized national movement in India in later half of 19th century.The beginning of new era in Indian history began in the year 1885. 72 political leaders put together has founded Indian National Congress in the last month of 1885. Indian National Congress was the first thumb impression in Indian Nationalism. Main factors resulting Nationalism in India:The First World WarKhilafat MovementNon Cooperation movementSatyagraha of Mahatma GandhiThe Rowlatt ActJalianwala Bagh mass executionImpact of First World War:The defense expenditure tremendously increased due to First World War during 1914 to 1918. The deficit was funded through war loans and levy of taxes. Introduction of Direct and Indirect Tax which includes Income Tax and custom duties were raised to generate more revenues. Prices hiked during the period of War and prices of some of the commodities were doubled during the World War. Common people suffered most during this period due to rise in prices. Rural population was forcefully recruited in the Army and this created irritation amongst common men. Influenza and failure of crop in many parts of the country provoked the problem. Millions of people died due to extreme natural calamities.Khilafat Movement:Mahatma Gandhi took the opportunity to bring Muslims and Hindus on a common platform. There was harsh peace treating on the Ottoman emperor, the spiritual head of Islamic world (known as the Khalfa). In March 1919, a Khilafat Committee was formed to protect the Khalifa. Mohammad Ali and Shaukat Ali, the brothers have led the committee. Mahatma Gandhi was also part to built this united mass mission. In September 1920, in Calcutta session of the Congress this was resolved to launch a Non Cooperation movement to give strength to Khilafat.Non Cooperation Movement: This was Mahatma Gandhi’s belief that British are ruling India only with the support and cooperation of Indians. Swaraj would come in India if Indians stop the cooperation to British. This was Gandhi ji’s belief that if Indian refuses to cooperate, British rulers have no choice than to leave India. Below were the proposals of non cooperation movement: Indian should boycott to work for Army, Police, Legal Counsel and SchoolsRefuse to accept foreign goodsAwards to be surrenderedFull civil disobedience Impact of movement:Thousands of Students left colleges, schools which were controlled by governmentTeachers started resigning , lawyers surrendered their legal practiceExcept Madras, all provinces elections were boycottedIndians had started boycotting foreign goodsImport of Foreign cloths were dropped drasticallySatyagarha of Mahatma Gandhi:This was Mahtama Gandhi’s idea to have Satyagraha, its novel method of demonstration. His ideology was, if people are fighting for a true cause, there is no need to have physical force against the opposition. Few were the Satyagarha movement organized by Mahatma Gandhi:Champaran Movement in 1916Kheda Movement in 1917Mill Workers movement in 1918The Rowlatt Act:In spite Indian members have not supported, The Rowlatt Act was passed by Imperial Legislative Council in 1919. Massive powers were given to the government to hold back the political activities. The Act allowed government to give political prisoners imprisonment without trial. Mahatma Gandhi launched a Satyagraha movement against the proposed Rowlatt Act. A huge response was given by the public on the call of strike. Railway workers were went on strike, shops were closed. Mahatma Gandhi was barred from entering to Delhi.Jalianwala Bagh mass executionWhen Baishakhi is celebrated in Punjab i.e. 13th April, the well-known Jalianwala Bagh massacre took place. A fair was arranged in Jaliawala Bagh where thousands of people were gathered. A narrow entry point was open and all the other sides were closed. All the open areas were blocked by the General Dyer and opened fire on the crowd. Hundreds of people were killed. A violent turn in to many parts of north Indian towns. Mahatma Gandhi called off the movement to avoid the violence.