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In perpetrators of child maltreatment. Each one

 

            In the article by Mikton and Butchart,
they systematically reviewed different universal and selective child
maltreatment prevention reviews and the quality of the reviews was evaluated
with a tool for the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR). Four of
the child maltreatment interventions, that are promising, are home visiting,
parent education, abusive head trauma prevention, and multi-component programs.
Home visiting is when trained personnel visit parents and children in their
homes to provide support and education to improve child health and the type of
parenting the child receives. Parent education programs take place in groups and
aim to improve the caregivers’ child-rearing skills, and increasing their
knowledge of child development, and enforcing positive child management
strategies. Abusive head trauma intervention focuses on preventing shaken baby
syndrome, shaken infant syndrome, and inflicted traumatic brain injury.
Multi-component intervention includes providing services like family support,
preschool education, parenting skills, and child care. (Mikton & Butchart,
2009). I believe these are great prevention strategies that can be made required
for recently new parents, to prevent child maltreatment, whether it was on purpose
or on accident.

Prevention
Strategies:

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Following
investigations, child protective services agencies provide services to children
and families, both in the home and in foster care. About 2.3 million children
received services to prevent child maltreatment. 22.9% of victims who received
services and 2.1% of nonvictims who received services were removed f rom their
homes and received foster care services; the remaining victims and nonvictims
were not removed and received services in their homes with families (Child
Welfare Information Gateway, 2017). This is a great response to the
maltreatment cases and can help with the aftermath of the maltreatment;
hopefully preventing the outcomes of maltreatments from affecting the victims.

In
2015, 51 states reported a total of 522,476 perpetrators of child maltreatment.
Each one was counted once, regardless of the number of children involved. 83.4%
of perpetrators were between the ages of 18 and 44. Of the perpetrators 54.1%
were women and 45% were men and 0.9% were of unknown sex. Majority of the
perpetrators were parents, one or both, which made up 91.6%. About 13.3% of
victims were victimized by people who were not their parents (Child Welfare
Information Gateway, 2017). Knowing that parents make up the majority of perpetrators
means that parents should be required to take parenting classes to improve
parenting and hopefully check ups to see how the parents, child, and the
relationship between the two are doing.

Victim
Experiences with the Criminal Justice System:

In
class we learned that outcomes from child maltreatment can be expressed by it
being internalized or externalized by the child. Internalized outcomes can
include depression, anxiety, future substance use, suicidal ideation, and
suicidal attempts. Externalized outcomes can include aggression,
inattentiveness, delinquency, violence, and criminal behaviours (Novak, 2017).
Many of these outcomes can lead to victimization of themselves and the victimization
of other people, which makes it important to learn more about preventing it,
because preventing child maltreatment can help prevent a lot of future victimization.

One
of the outcomes from Child Maltreatment is death. The National Child Abuse and
Neglect Data System defines “child fatality” as the death of a child
caused by an injury resulting from abuse or neglect or where abuse or neglect
was a contributing factor. Abuse and neglect causes the death of about 1,670
children, with an overall rate of 2.25 deaths per 100,000 children in the
national population. 74.8% of the deaths were for children younger than 3 years
old. Boys had a fatality rate of 2.42 boy per 100,000 boys, whereas girls had a
fatality rate of 2.09 girls per 100,000 girls in the population (Child Welfare
Information Gateway, 2017).

Associated
Outcomes:

Protective factors that I learned about
in class include the family receiving social support, maternal education,
maternal employment, and parental self-efficacy. These factors can help by
providing the resources a family needs to be able to take care of the children.
Education can help improve parenting and lead to a healthier relationship with
the child; having a job can help provide better resources to the child (Novak,
2017).

Risk factors that can lead to a child experiencing
neglect relating to parent-child interaction include the parent seeing the
child as a problem, parenting behaviors, and stress over parenting. Characteristics
that a parent may have, that leads to victimizing a child, include personal
stress, anger or hyper-reactivity, psychopathology, unemployment, depression,
poor relationship with own parents, parental experienced childhood abuse, and
single parenthood. Characteristic a child may have, that can lead to
victimization, include child externalizing behavior, child internalizing behavior,
and child gender. The only characteristics of families, that can cause
victimization, is the family size (Stith et al., 2009).

Risk factors that can lead to a child
experiencing abuse relating to parent-child interaction include the parent
seeing the child as a problem, if the child was an unplanned pregnancy, the use
of corporal punishment by the parent, parenting behaviors, and stress over
parenting. Characteristics that a parent may have, that leads to victimizing a
child, include anger or hyper-reactivity, anxiety, psychopathology, depression,
poor relationship with own parents, parent experienced childhood abuse,
criminal behaviors, personal stress, alcohol abuse, unemployment, single
parenthood, drug abuse, health problems, parent gender, and approval of
corporal punishment. Characteristics that a child may have that can lead to
victimization include child externalizing behaviors, child internalizing
behaviors, child gender, prenatal or neonatal problems, and child disability. Characteristics
of families, that can lead to victimization, include family conflict, spousal
violence, and family size (Stith et al., 2009).

In the meta-analytic literature review
(Stith et al., 2009), risk factors are provided for both physical abuse and
neglect and broken down into four categories; parent-child interaction, parent
characteristics independent of the child, child characteristics excluding
parents, and family characteristics.

From
the Child Maltreatment Key Findings of 2015 by the Child Welfare Services, some
risk factors they included were parents that were alcohol abusers and drug
abusers. 10.3% of victims and 5.5% of nonvictims were reported with caregivers
who were alcohol abusers and 25.4% of victims and 8.1% of nonvictims were reported
with caregivers who were drug abusers (Child Welfare Information Gateway,
2017). So if the parent, or caregiver, is under the influence, it can be a risk
factor that leads to child to experience child maltreatment of any form.

Risk
and Protective Factors:

Some
limitations that I saw from this could be whether the neglect was on purpose or
the caregivers’ only choice. Sometime being in the lower class, or poverty, can
limit people to poor educational, dental, and medical resources, which can be
seen to some as neglect. So, should they be punished for doing their best?
There is also the problem with where the limit is between punishment and abuse,
when does a spanking or pinching become abuse instead of punishment?

Neglect
is the most common form of child maltreatment. In the key findings, 75.3% of
victims suffered from neglect, 17.2% suffered physical abuse, 8.4% suffered
sexual abuse, 6.2% suffered psychological maltreatment, 2.2% suffered medical
neglect, and 6.9% of victims experienced other types of maltreatment, which is
made up by anything that doesn’t fit into the previous categories (Child
Welfare Information Gateway, 2017).

            Of the 683,000 children who were
found to be victims, the age range that had the highest age of victimization
was between birth to the age of 1, at a rate of 24.2 per 1,000 children. 50.9%
of the children victimized were girls and 48.6% were boys; the gender was
unknown for .5% of the victims. Regarding race and ethnicity, 21.4% of victims
were African-American children, 23.6% were Hispanic, and 43.3% were White.
African-American children had the highest rate of victimization at 14.5 per 1,000
children and American Indian or Alaska Native had a rate of 13.8 per 1,000
children (Child Welfare Information Gateway, 2017). Children at a young age are
usually vulnerable and can’t do anything to defend themselves, making it easier
to be victimized by people who are older.

Child
protective services had received about 4 million referrals of maltreatment
allegations for about 7.2 million children in 2015, meaning that the
allegations could be true or false reports. Of these referrals about 2.2
million reports concerning about 4.1 million children were seen “appropriate”
for child protective services to respond to. About 683,000 of the children
investigated were found to be victims of abuse and neglect, which is at a rate
of 9.2 per 1,000 children in the population. The remainder of the children
investigated were found to be nonvictims of maltreatment (Child Welfare
Information Gateway, 2017).

            The following information was
reported by the child welfare services and found in the Child Maltreatment Key
Findings of 2015. The data was voluntarily reported to the National Child Abuse
and Neglect Data System (NCANDS) by the 50 states, Washington D.C., and Puerto
Rico. NCANDS was developed by the Children’s Bureau of the U.S. Department of
Health and Human Services to gather information and analyze annual statistics
of child maltreatment from state child protective services agencies. According
to the data, overall rates of victimization have decreased and the overall
rates of children receiving a response from the Child Protective Services
agency has increased (Child Welfare Information Gateway, 2017).

Prevalence:

It
is important to examine this topic into greater detail because children are the
future of the world. The way they are treated at a young age can determine who
they will become when they grow up and how they will behave. Parents that are
positively involved in their child’s life are more likely to result in the
child having low levels of external problem behaviours, like being antisocial
and conduct behaviours, because it helps teach the child self-regulation when
in social situations (Aunola & Nurmi, 2005). Focusing on risk factors and
finding a way to prevent child maltreatment can prevent future victimization by
preventing the child from becoming the perpetrator, which we learned in class as
the Cycle of Violence. The Cycle of Violence refers to a person, in this case a
child, experiencing maltreatment and growing up to experience negative outcomes
and taking out their aggression onto their child and the cycle repeats, in
other words violence breeding violence (Maxfield & Widom, 1996). So, if we
start by preventing the child from experiencing maltreatment, it can prevent so
much victimization that could be done by future generations and prevent
delinquent behaviour as well.

The
topic I have chosen to write about is child maltreatment. In class I learned
that child maltreatment includes both child abuse and child neglect and is
defined by the Centers for
Disease Control and Prevention as “any act or series of acts of commission or
omission by a parent or other caregiver resulting in harm, potential harm, or
threat of harm to a child” (Fisher, Reyns, & Sloan III, 2016). “The
difference between acts of commission (overt actions) and omission (failing to
act) is what distinguishes child abuse from child neglect” (Fisher, et al.,
2016). Child abuse is defined as “when parents or caregivers overtly or
intentionally act in ways that are harmful to the child either physically or
emotionally” (Fisher et al., 2016), which can include physical abuse, sexual
abuse, and psychological abuse. Child neglect is defined as “when caregivers
fail to provide for the child’s needs, or fail to protect a child from harm
through proper supervision” (Fisher et al., 2016) which can include physical
neglect, emotional neglect, educational neglect, and medical or dental neglect.

Introduction:

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