In linguistics, speech is regards to be different with language.
According to the almost completely sources, speech is the way that we utter the
sound and words, besides this agreeable on defining speech, if we at different
sources, we will face many different inclusions of speech.
There are two main analyzing of the term speech, which they are
nearly opposite to each other. The first explanation is on the viewpoints of
phonetics, concerning to phonetics, speech is like an instrument of
transformation for language. The second analyzing is from the viewpoint of
linguistics, which speech regarded and indicated in semantic, phonological and
grammatical, rather than phonetic terms (Crystal, 2003).
(Farrokhpey, 1998) Indicates that: speech is the physical
revelation of the language knowledge. Indeed it can regard as language
behavior, Speech often studied with psychology (i.e. psycholinguistics). And
since speech is the physical, so (voice, articulation and fluency) are concerned.
In explanation of these terms, it is clear that voice is related to vocal
cords, articulation is related to the way that we make sounds by using our
tongue, lips and mouth, while fluency is related to the problems like falter.
What is language?
This term has a various definition, but the simplest and the most
agreeable ones are that, which regards language as the way which words refer
and it is by language we share the ideas and feelings. Studying language leads
us to think about the meaning (semantics and pragmatics are involved).
In comparison with these times of personal languages, Dialects,
sorts, and so on, there may be additionally the summary sense of language, regarding the organic faculty’ which
allows people to learn and use their language implicit within the notion of LAD in Psycholinguistics. At a comparably
abstract stage language is visible as defining characteristic of human behavior
the universal properties of all (speech/writing) systems, particularly as
characterized in phrases of design functions, for example: productivity or
language universals. Nowadays linguistics doesn’t, but follow the famous
application of the term to human modes of conversation other than by using
speech and writing (body language as an example which considering that the
behaviors concerned are specific in type) because the standards of productiveness
and duality suggest that. Besides in a metaphorical way the term (language) enters
into several technical terms, maximum of which can be self-evident, for example:
language teaching and language learning, a few, but require a minimum
elucidation. For instance, first language mother-tongue) is distinguishable
from second language (a language beside mother- tongue which uses for a unique
purpose, for example: using it for education, government and so on) and also is
differing from foreign language (Crystal, 2003).
The term language is holding more controversial issues, but as our
study is limited with development of language, so we can take the simple
meanings of the interpretations of the term.
Simply, it is through language that we can get what we really want
from others in life, and that’s why it refers to words. The word language
includes four main properties. The first is the meaning of words, for example:
the word “baby” it may use for (infant, child…), or for the one you love. The
second inclusion of language is making new words, for example: use, re-use… the
third one is putting words together (related to syntactic rules), and the last
one is saying in different times (related to semantics) (ASHA, n.d.)
How does child hear and
The development of language reveals in child before he/she utter
the first word. The stages have been divided to different steps. So if we ask
ourselves: “Is Children’s knowledge of language innate?” this is a question
that holds much more researches and arguments. But if it not, then how they
acquire a language? How they use, comprehend and produce it? Indeed, scholar’s
has been talking about this important subject till now; even it is more
expanding day by day on its own field. So, in order to answer, or at least to
comprehend and analyze this, there has been made theories.
The learner (i.e. human) can consider as a machine which can input
and output the information at the same time, beside that considering Chomsky’s
opinion the whole basic information has been innately placed, and the other
factors are just effects to wake up this innateness, so; if we look at humans
information technology, we will find that, even with creation of amazing and
astonished inventions but still can’t create a miracle!
After Chomsky Criticized Skinner, he in the 1960s proposed the LAD,
according to famous American linguist, Chomsky; language is innateness, which
means it pre-programmed in the human mind. One of the causes that lead Chomsky
to skinner was wrong was that; why human say something that never heard it
before! If they are acquiring language through imitation and effects of the
environment! Chomsky argued that; humans possess an innate knowledge about
language, he (Chomsky) named this; Universal Grammar (UG) (Holmes and Roche, 2002).
After Chomsky declared this, the door was opened for new inventions
to the linguists, especially those who were interested in the language
structure. Indeed, it was then; the linguistics shifted from the descriptive
era to the real study of the structure. The linguists began to study language
in deep, the branches like: psycholinguistics, Applied linguistics,
sociolinguistics… were about to develop much more, and till now it spreads each
It is clear that, according to Chomsky, infants have given an
innately system, which possess linguistic structure, also the tools will be
needed for the development (Guasti, 2002).
Questions in this area are too much, thousands of non-answered is
questioned each day, also amazing facts appear every day. Linguists hope this
may lead them one day to the real fact about the complex system of human brain
and language. And their desire to design
robot or a machine to acquire language is the great aim, but till now the
newest computers or even Siri can only deal and communicate on an artificial
language that designed especially for them.
As we stated before, Chomsky
named this innate knowledge: Universal Grammar (UG). This theory indicates
that, human have limited rules, but through this limited rules we can express
As it declared in the previous chapter, that infants language is
innate, anywhere, around the world, children acquire language of their mother
tongue according to the society. So child language learning consists of four
characters which they are: typical, similar from one to another, spontaneous
and creative). In analyzing the second one, we can notice the main stages of
(about is months)
words: (about one year)
grammatical morphemes: (about two years)
mastery: (about four years)
effective learning… (Huson, 2005).
According to (Traxler and Gernsbacher, 2006) in explaining to how
and why does the child’s linguistic conduct exchange so dramatically over the
brief time period? They believe that a lot of the studies on this
subject matter have assumed that these systems pushed via innate and highly specialized
mental systems. And this is, gaining knowledge of language, which includes the
operation of a mainly linguistic maturational bio-program (which means UG),
because it approaches particularly linguistic input consistent with this
attitude, this innately particular machine is what makes it possible for the
child to decide which of all of the possible linguistic rule structures
characterizes their unique native language. For the reason that speech to infants
is usually less complicated than speech to adults, learning a grammar can be
hindered by means of the truth that the input is restricted to the scope and
quantity of the detailed syntactic records it can provide. Most significantly,
several studies have demonstrated that caregivers do no longer provide enough
specific data to prevent the kid from building overly preferred grammatical systems.
Certainly, the purpose of a good deal studies in contemporary linguistics has
been to map the numerous set of standards and functions that describes the
guideline structures of any and all the world’s languages. Of course, in taking
off on this daunting task, one is quickly struck by means of the significant
richness and complexity of human grammars.
For this reason, it was seemingly not possible to discover a universal
set of functions of infant-directed input necessary for acquisition to take
vicinity. Furthermore, the wisdom of relying on a simplified baby-directed signs
up as the basis of grammatical development becomes known as into question (p. 1028-29).