Information and communications engineerings ( ICTs ) have changed the manner in which houses do concern and create value. However, empirical information for the linkage between ICT impacts and concern procedure re-engineering ( BPR ) is rare and cross-country comparing is besides losing. The aim of our survey is to better our apprehension of the part of ICTs to tauten public presentation and research the linkage between ICT impacts and BPR by using multiple-group structural equations patterning to prove the Cross-Nation-ICT acceptance Model. To prove the theoretical account, a study informations form the United State, Taiwan, Korea, and Chile was conducted.
This paper contributes to IS research by offering some penetrations and researching BPR generalisation by transverse national comparing. First, it provides empirical grounds to analyze impacts of ICTs acceptance on concern procedure reengineering. Second, we emphasize two major ICT substructures: resource planning substructure and e-commerce substructure that houses adopt for progressing concern procedures in order to vie existent concern environments. Finally, we explore the national difference on ICTs acceptance and its impacts on fiscal public presentation. More exactly, the theoretical account encapsulates the effects of both ICTs impacts for concern procedure re-engineering and ICTs support for steadfast assets on house public presentation.
Keywords: Information and communications engineerings, Resource-based position, Cross-cultural, Structural equation mold
Information and communications engineerings ( ICTs ) have changed the manner in which houses do concern and create value. Many research workers focus on ICT systems and interaction with houses, such as information capableness and concern procedure re-engineering ( BPR ) , and claim that ICTs addition house ‘s fight. For illustration, Sarker and Jagjit ( 2006 ) and Ziaul, Faizul, and Ken ( 2006 ) study that ICTs may alter concern patterns to re-optimize concern procedures, which leads to increased efficiency and improved public presentation. Neirotti, Cantamessa, and Paolucci ( 2008 ) find that ICTs aid houses to better their cognition about clients and public presentation in the fabrication industries in Italy. Rhim, Park, and Kim ( 2007 ) show that acceptance of ICTs may better general fiscal public presentation, cut down functional country costs through concern procedure outsourcing, client relationship direction ( CRM ) , supply concatenation direction ( SCM ) , etc.
Despite the importance of ICT, most research focal point on one or two endeavor applications, such as electronic commercialism or endeavor resource planning ( Lee, Chu, & A ; Tseng, 2009 ) . We argue that scrutiny of one sort of engineerings is non a good attack to analyzing concern reengineering. It ignores the assorted effects of assorted ICTs on BPR and girls to offer a complete image of the relationship between ICT acceptance and BPR. parts of ICTs at state degree are seldom examined and compared. In add-on, ICT activities in houses are complicated, and may be different significantly across states. The impact of ICT utilizations may depend on national civilization and in the specific environment in which they are embedded ( Limaye & A ; Victor, 1999 ) . Generalizations about the results of related to ICT acceptance can non be made until research accumulates grounds of similar effects across different states ( Spanos, Prastacos, & A ; Poulymenakou, 2002 ) .
Based on the rich organic structure of research on BPR and the acceptance and diffusion of ICTs, we foremost propose an initial ICT-BPR theoretical account ( Lee, Chu, & A ; Tseng, 2009 ) . The study consequences indicate that organisational invention, market force per unit area and competitory strength positively affect information engineering acceptance, which in bend trigger alterations or concern procedure in footings of workplace, work force and concern construction ( Lee, Chu, & A ; Tseng, 2009 ) . We extend our initial ICT-enabled BPR theoretical account to measure ICT-enabled BPR and concern public presentation by look intoing 377 senior information systems directors from top 2,000 Taiwan corporations, the consequences show that ICTs engineerings facilitate houses to optimise concern procedures, and concern procedure re-engineering has important positive impacts on internal procedure public presentation and corporate fiscal public presentation ( Lee, Chu, & A ; Tseng, 2010 ) . In this survey, we further revise our ICT-BPR-Performance theoretical account and use multiple-group structural equation patterning to prove the revised theoretical account on informations derived from cross-national research. The informations are collected from the Business and Information Technologies ( BIT ) undertaking, which lead by research workers at UCLA Anderson School of Management. The chief intent of the BIT undertaking is to analyze the impacts of ICTs on concern patterns in assorted states over an drawn-out clip skyline. The findings would be valuable in understanding the complexness of ICT acceptance and foretelling result of concern procedure reengineering.
The paper is organized in six subdivisions. The 2nd subdivision provides an overview of past surveies on ICT acceptance and possible impacts on concern procedure and net income, which will assist us locate the present survey. The 3rd subdivision presents an analytical model for analyzing the relationship among ICT acceptance, concern procedure re-engineering, and public presentation, pulling from concern, economic sciences and organisational development literature. The information and methodological analysis used in the survey are discussed in subdivision four, and the empirical consequences are presented in subdivision five. The concluding subdivision discusses the consequences, deductions and restrictions of the survey.
ICT acceptance and BPR
. Business procedure reengineering is an attack that houses take to re-optimize concern procedures for the intent of obtaining competitory advantages and heightening concern public presentation, such as costs salvaging, quality discovery, better client services, clip decrease, and gross additions ( Morris & A ; Brandon 1993 ) . In most BPR instances, ICTs play a critical function in reshaping concern patterns. For illustration, Morton ( 1996 ) finds that ICT is an of import enabler of BPR because ICTs permit the distribution of power, map, and control to wherever they are most effectual, and farther alter the ways in which production, coordination activities, and informations processing are carried out. Many experts ( Attaran, 2004 ; Akhavan, Jafari & A ; Ali-Ahmadi, 2006 ; Freeman, 2000 ; Venkatraman, 1991 ) agree that ICTs could ease houses to garner and analyse information, develop strategic visions, let collaborative teamwork, and happen the best attack for concern procedure redesign. Firms sometimes need to alter the organisational construction to aline with the adopted ICTs to obtain positive concern public presentation and better operational efficiency ( Kang, Park & A ; Yang, 2008 ) .
ICT application and its influence on BPR are related to many interrelated systems, such as organisational power, cultural tantrum, etc. ( Akhavan et al. , 2006 ; Bartis and Mitev, 2008 ) . Lee et Al. ( 2009 ) suggest that ICTs change BPR in three dimensions. The first 1 is alterations of workplace. In many instances, ICTs enhance control and coordination and license alterations the economic sciences and functionality of the coordination procedure ( Morton, 1996 ) . For illustration, ICTs prostration infinite and clip restraints and allow people to work outside the office, engage in non-face-to-face coordination activities at different locations and even in different clip zones ( Morton, 1996 ; Turban, King, Lee, Warkentin, & A ; Chung, 2002 ; Sarkar & A ; Jagjit, 2006 ; Ziaul, Faizul & A ; Ken, 2006 ; Dub, Liu, Wynter, & A ; Xia, 2007 ) . ICTs enable the staff to telecommunicate from place or other locations, send and receive multimedia informations, exchange information, and accomplish undertakings by utilizing electronic mail, teleconferencing and assorted Internet-based cooperation tools. Communication and connectivity within an organisation becomes more direct and cross-unit coaction among geographically dispersed concern units is increased ( Sarkar & A ; Jagjit, 2006 ) .
The 2nd one is alterations of work force. ICTs activate series of mechanization in many concern patterns, such as supply concatenation direction, order direction, client service direction, which leads to manpower decrease, e.g. , office staff and production workers decrease ( Wymer & A ; Regan, 2005 ; Sarkar & A ; Jagjit, 2006 ; Ziaul, Faizul & A ; Ken, 2006 ; Lee et al. , 2009 ) . Contract out scheduling, web direction, client services and market research leting houses to do confederations with organisations that are more professional or labour-intensive ( Kearney, 2000 ; Dube Liu, Wynter & A ; Xia, 2007 ) . Reacting to mechanization and outsourcing, ICT skills or knowledge become necessary demands for employees and are the greatest jobs when houses engage in BPR ( Ahadi, 2006 ) .
The 3rd one is alterations of organisational construction. What ICTs could make is be flexible adequate to manage alterations of environment and concern procedures, which at last leads organisational construction reform ( Bhatt, 2000 ; Chanopas et al. , 2006 ; Venkatraman, 1991 ) . By sharing and interchanging information through ICTs, employees can straight describe to directors and concern units decrease the procedure of mediation and increase cross-unit coaction ( Teng, Grover, & A ; Fiedler, 1994 ; Sarkar & A ; Jagjit, 2006 ; Ziaul, Faizul, & A ; Ken, 2006 ) . As a consequence, the organisational hierarchies become flatter, and the grade of centralisation of determination devising has been changed ( Orman, 1998 ; Pan & A ; Jang, 2008 ) . In add-on, ICTs besides enhance directors ‘ information-processing capacity ( Orman, 1998 ) and addition directors ‘ control ( Karmarkar & A ; Vandanal, 2004 ) .
ICT, BPR and public presentation ( This portion – please look into the logic and order of the article )
Many research workers believe that new ICTs bring better public presentation ( Akhavan et al. , 2006 ; Dube, Liu, Wynter & A ; Xia, 2007 ; Kearney, 2000 ; Sarkar & A ; Jagjit, 2006 ) . Other research workers argue that ICT is non a driver of public presentation per Se. It should be associated with higher public presentation if accompanied by organisational alteration ( Francalanci & A ; Morabito, 2008 ) . ICT plays a utile function in BPR, and BPR is expected to re-optimize concern procedures and better concern public presentation ( Hammer, 1990 ; Goll, 1992 ; Hammer & A ; Champy, 1993 ; Al-Qirim, 2007 ) . Industrial economic experts ( e.g. , Hempell, et al. , 2004 ; Premkumar & A ; Roberts, 1999 ; Sarkar & A ; Jagjit, 2006 ; Shin, 2006 ) assume that ICTs have direct impacts on productiveness. They employ the structure-conduct-performance model, follow traditional input and end product mathematical computation and usage arrested development to foretell how much capital and employment of ICTs are accounted for the productiveness. However, they frequently ignore the moderate consequence of ICTs on organisational reform processes.
To measure ICT-driven public presentation, it is common to utilize nonsubjective net income informations on stock returns and accounting prosodies. Santhanam and Hartono ( 2003 ) happen out that houses with superior IT capableness so exhibit superior house public presentation when compared to average industry public presentation in fiscal indexs, such as return on assets, runing income to assets, etc. Francalanci and Morabito ( 2008 ) usage ROE and ROI index to prove organisational absorbent capacity and analyzes its effects on the relationship between IT and concern public presentation in little and average endeavors. Hendricks et Al. ( 2007 ) document the consequence of investings in ERP, SCM, and CRM systems on a house ‘s stock monetary value public presentation and profitableness steps such as return on assets and return on gross revenues. However, the fiscal benefits of these executions outputs assorted consequences. Many multi-years, multi-million dollar ERP undertakings, do non harvest benefits from ICTs ( Attewell, 1996 ; Dryden, 1998 ) . Even the additions are realized, given the high degrees of outgo and attempts for ICTs, the benefits for concern in these investings are comparatively little in comparing ( Bird, 1994 ; Lyytinen & A ; Robey, 1999 ; Carr, 2003 ; Na, et al. , 2004 ) . Therefore, how ICTs affect concerns re-engineering procedure, and how ICT-enabled alterations influence concern public presentation remain a mystifier and necessitate farther elucidation.
Based on resource-based theory, Melville, Kraemer, and Gurbaxani ( 2004 ) propose an integrative theoretical account of IT concern value that comprises three spheres: value coevals procedure ( e.g. , IT & A ; organisational resources, procedure & A ; organisational public presentation, etc. ) , competitory environment ( e.g. , industrial and trading spouse features ) , and macro environment ( e.g. state features ) . The conceptual theoretical account describes how phenomena occupant within each sphere shape the relationship between ICT and organisational public presentation. Merely partial theoretical accounts are tested on empirical informations and the consequences show no relentless grounds of public presentation associated with ICT investings ( Santhanam & A ; Hartono, 2003 ; Jin, 2006 ; Hendricks et al. , 2007 ; Francalanci & A ; Morabito, 2008 ) . They further sort public presentation into two parts: ( 1 ) concern procedure performance-a scope of steps associated with operational efficiency sweetening, e.g. , stock list turnover ( Barua, et al. , 1995 ) , client satisfaction ( Devaraj & A ; Kohli, 2000 ) , and on-time transportation ( McAfee, 2002 ) ; ( 2 ) organisational performance-IT-enabled public presentation impacts across all house activities, e.g. , operations steps ( cost decrease, productiveness sweetening, etc. ) , market-based steps ( stock market value, Tobin ‘s Q, etc. ) ( Dehning & A ; Richardson, 2002 ) , and perceptual steps ( usage prosodies, balanced scored card, etc. ) ( Tallon et al. , 2000 ; Lee et al. , 2010 ) . This resource-based theoretical attack informs understanding of the linkage between the type of ICTs and the nature of concern procedure and organisational public presentation impacts. However, such attack seldom links to BPR and research workers could non make consensus on the public presentation measuring criterions.
We therefore propose to look into the moderate consequence of ICTs on public presentation and analyze how ICTs re-engineer concern procedures. As houses emphasize more on profitableness than productiveness ( Dewan & A ; Draemer, 2000 ) , we assess the public presentation from the position of profitableness.
Hypothesiss and Research Questions
ICT-enabled BPR frequently contributes to higher public presentation. ICTs re-engineer the organisational construction, workplace and work force ( Lee, et al. , 2009 ; Sarkar & A ; Jagjit, 2006 ; Ziaul et al. , 2006 ) . By using ICTs, the organisation construction become flatter with efficient determination devising and the staff can work and collaborate by telecommunicating each other outside the office ( Lee, et al. , 2009 ; Teng, Grover & A ; Fiedler, 1994 ; Sarkar & A ; Jagjit, 2006 ; Ziaul, et al. , 2006 ) . ICTs besides allow organisations to work expeditiously with less work force ( Wymer & A ; Regan, 2005 ; Sarkar & A ; Jagjit, 2006 ; Ziaul et al. , 2006 ) . We therefore develop the undermentioned hypotheses:
Hypotheses 1a-1c: Workplace reform ( WP ) ( 1a ) , workforce reform ( WF ) ( 1b ) , and organisational construction reform ( OS ) ( 1c ) all have positive and important impacts on concern net income ( net income ) .
Hypotheses 2a-2b: Resource planning substructure ( RPI ) ( 2a ) and e-commerce substructure ( ECI ) ( 2b ) both have positive and important impacts on workplace reform ( WP ) .
Hypotheses 3a-3c: Workplace reform ( WP ) ( 3a ) , resource planning substructure ( RPI ) ( 3b ) , and e-commerce substructure ( ECI ) ( 3c ) all have positive and important impacts on work force reform ( WF ) .
Hypotheses 4a-4c: Work force reform ( WF ) ( 4a ) , resource planning substructure ( RPI ) ( 4b ) , and e-commerce substructure ( ECI ) ( 4c ) all have positive and important impacts on organisational construction ( OS ) .
Shall we Add these 2 research inquiries? ? ? ? ?
Research Question 1: Are there differences of ICT acceptance impacts on BPR among states?
Research Question 2: Are there differences of BPR influences on net income among states?
Figure 1 presents the Cross-Nation ICT-enabled BPR theoretical account proposed by this survey.
[ Insert Figure 1. here ] The Cross-Nation ICT-enabled BPR Model
The predating theoretical statements and our proposed theoretical account can be officially stated by the undermentioned system of coincident arrested development theoretical accounts.
Based on the predating theories and hypotheses, this subdivision inside informations the subsequent concepts and questionnaire points, and the study settings to roll up the empirical information from the senior information systems directors of organisation units that make independent determinations on information engineering systems.
The study instrument for this survey was developed utilizing validated points from past research. ICT acceptance refers to the perceptual experience of respondents to accept an ICT. We distinguish among two types of ICT, resource planning substructure ( including endeavor resource planning, concern intelligence, content direction, and supply concatenation direction ) and e-commerce substructure ( including storage country webs and web attached storage, digital grosss, coaction & A ; portal tools, website and e-commerce, concern procedure mold, and endeavor Instant messaging ) . Respondents are asked to bespeak their credence of the above mentioned ICTs. BPR refers to dramatic and distinguishable direction reforms and redesign of work flow as a consequence of ICT acceptance. It was assessed from three dimensions: Organizational construction, workplace, and work force. Organizational construction reform refers to alterations of organisational hierarchy. The measuring comprised of a combination of the instruments used in Sarkar and Singh ( 2006 ) , Karmarkar and Mangal ( 2006 ) , inquiring respondents if ICT acceptance decreases in-between degree directors, makes the organisation more flatter, and increases directors ‘ control ( Karmarkar & A ; Mangal, 2006 ) . Workplace reform describes alterations of where people work and prosecute in non-face-to-face coordination activities. A graduated table for workplace was developed to inquire persons to bespeak 2 points if they telecommute and teleconferencing. Workforce reform is defined as manpower decrease. concept was a alteration of the concept used in the study instruments of ( Karmarkar & A ; Mangal, 2004 ) , inquiring if the companies cut down manpower because of prosecuting in mechanization, outsourcing, and automated monitoring. Respondent besides rated 2 points of “ The demand for IT skills at lower degrees is traveling up, ” and “ The IT map is switching from staff to line ” for this concept. Performance in this survey is evaluated from the position of net incomes. The study instruments used by Karmarkar and Mangal ( 2004 ) are used to inquire respondents to rate 2 points about how they felt engineering impacts on the organisations in footings of fiscal net incomes and borders. The points of WP, WF, OS, and net income were measured on a five-point Likert graduated table, where ‘1 ‘ represented ‘strongly disagree ‘ , and ‘5 ‘ represented ‘strongly agree ‘ . The questionnaires were pre-tested on 15 respondents in order to find the length of the instrument, the format, and the lucidity and rightness of the diction of the graduated tables, which resulted in the alteration of some inquiries regarded as equivocal.
The concluding questionnaire, developed partly in conformity with the BIT undertaking, includes two major parts. The first portion is composed of 20 two inquiries as shown in Table 1. The 2nd portion contains information about the surveyed company, including size, industry type. The 20 two points in Table 1 base for the variables that measure the theoretical concepts functioning as forecasters of the Cross-Nation ICT-enabled BPR Model in Figure 1.
[ Insert Table 1 here ] : Detailed Concepts and Questionnaire Items
The research was conducted by obtaining responses from Chief Information Officers or senior information systems directors that make independent determinations on information and communications engineerings systems in houses of Taiwan, the United States, Korea, and Chile.[ 1 ]Table 2 summarizes the sample sizes and demographics of each state. We selected the four states for three grounds: ( 1 ) generalizability-that is, the states loosely represent the international bunchs ; ( 2 ) concept equivalence-that is, the acceptance of ICTs provides comparatively similar experiences in footings of basic want/need fulfilment, for the concern organisations in the four states ( and arguably many others ) ; and ( 3 ) informations availability-that is, the available BIT web that provides quality informations for the four states.
[ Insert Table 2 here ] : The sample sizes and demographics of each state
In Taiwan, questionnaires were mailed to 2,000 companies by consistently trying the database of The Largest 5,000 Corporations. In Korea, the study was sent by facsimile or delivered by interviewers depending on the location of the respondent. Collection procedure was managed by a dependable market research company. More than 50 % of the respondents were director degree. In Chile, The information has a weighting factor because 300 instance samples were split every bit among large, medium, and small-sized houses ( 100 instances each, indiscriminately selected in each class ) . To guarantee proper representativeness of these 300 instances, they had to be weighed up/down harmonizing to the existent distribution of these three sizes- there are smaller than large companies. In the United State, the study was sent to a database of over 25,000 persons across all industry sectors in the United State. The information was acquired from an independent entity that collects corporate informations. The CIO ware requested to finish the study either by mail or on-line, where the study questionnaire was besides made available.
The sample consists of 382 respondents from Taiwan, 248 from the United State, 262 from Korea, and 301 from Chile. We exclude 40 samples from public sectors and media sectors from Taiwan, those informations are low ICT acceptance due to industry feature. To merit to be mentioned, this low response rate is common in the direction country of obtaining responses from top direction ( Ferratt, Agarwal, Moore, & A ; Brown, 1999 ) .
Among these organisations, the largest industry in Taiwan is “ Manufacturing ( 38.3 % ) ” , followed by “ Service ( 28.1 % ) ” , among these organisations, 35.5 % organisations with fewer than 100 employees are categorized as little organisations, and 18.7 % organisations with more than 1,000 employees are big 1s. In the United State, the largest industry is “ Service ( 56.5 % ) ” , followed by “ Manufacturing ( 31.5 % ) ” , they employ from fewer than 50 to more than 1,000 workers. Among these organisations, 7.2 % organisations with fewer than 100 employees are categorized as little organisations, and 39.7 % organisations with more than 1,000 employees are big 1s. In Korea is “ Service ( 63.7 % ) ” , followed by “ Manufacturing ( 27.5 % ) ” , they employ from fewer than 50 to more than 1,000 workers. Among these organisations, 27.7 % organisations with fewer than 100 employees are categorized as little organisations, and 26.2 % organisations with more than 1,000 employees are big 1s. In Chile, the largest industry is “ Manufacturing ( 39.3 % ) ” , followed by “ Service ( 28.7 % ) ” , among these organisations, 78.4 % organisations with fewer than 100 employees are categorized as little organisations, and 8.6 % organisations with more than 200 employees are big 1s.
As a more strict method, structural equation mold ( SEM ) may offer a more holistic image of ICT acceptance, as relationships between concern procedure reform and concern net income can be examined at the same time in one incorporate theoretical account. In add-on to descriptive statistical sum-ups, multiple-group structural equation mold was utilized to prove the theoretical account by package bundles utilizing SPSS 12.0 and AMOS 16.0 package bundles.
Evaluations of the Measurements
Among four states, endeavor resource planning is the most popular information system in the resource planning substructure and supply concatenation direction system is the last ( Table 1 ) . Website and e-commerce are the most widely adopted ICTs in the e-commerce Infrastructure. Digital reception is the least adoptive ICTs in Taiwan, Korea, and the United State. Business procedure mold is the least in Chile. With respect to the workplace reform, the consequence of this survey shows that most houses experience the addition use of telecommuting and teleconferencing, except Korea. The consequences of mean of these two inquiries in Korea are 2.25 and 2.71. ICT-enabled work force reforms include engaging more staff of lower degree that possess IT skills, increased machine-controlled monitoring of work force productiveness, and increased IT map to work-front line from staff for all four states. Taiwan is the lone state that reform work force by decrease because of mechanization and outsourcing. Firms in four states engage in organisational construction reforms by doing the construction more level so that the concern has a wider span of control and employees can describe straight to directors. The studies in this survey ( Table 1 ) demonstrate that ICTs increase net incomes and borders for houses of the four states.
Quality of the Proposed Model
Scale dependability and concept cogency were tested with collateral factor analysis ( CFA ) ( Bentler, 1995 ) before measuring the hypothesized relationships shown in [ Figure 1 ] . It is besides necessary to place tantamount phenomena when carry oning cross-national research ( Calantone et al. , 1996 ) . A separate CFA that involved natural informations as input was performed for each of the four states ( Anderson & A ; Gerbing, 1988 ) . All concepts in the four samples were composed of indistinguishable points. Based on CFA consequences, we eliminated points that loaded on multiple concepts or had low item-to-construct burdens ( Anderson & A ; Gerbing, 1988 ) . Then, the tantrum of the measuring theoretical account for each of the four states ( Bagozzi & A ; Yi, 1988 ) was assessed. As Table 3 shows, the burdens of points on their several factors were extremely important ( p & lt ; 0.01 ) . The goodness of fit index ( GFI ) , comparative tantrum index ( CFI ) , and Bollen ‘s fit index ( IFI ) scope between 0.82 and 0.91 for each of the four states. The root average square of mistake estimate ( RMSEA ) values was found to be 0.061, 0.067, 0.064, and 0.061 for Taiwan, US, Korea, and Chile, severally. The consequences suggest that the informations converge and the CFA theoretical account for all four states fits the informations adequately ( Bentler, 1995 ; Bollen, 1989 ) .
[ Insert Table 3 here ] : Summary of dependability and cogency index
Measurement invariability addresses the inquiry whether the same theoretical accounts hold across different states. More specifically, instruments can merely be compared when demoing cross-national invariability. The underlying logical thinking is that cross-national differences in graduated table agencies or structural relationships between graduated table tonss so indicate true differences across states, alternatively of being caused by systematic response prejudices or jobs with scale artefacts, dependability, or nonequivalence ( Mullen, 1995 ; Steenkamp & A ; Baumgartner, 1998 ) .
We tested for measuring invariability across the four states following the method suggested by Mullen ( 1995 ) and Steenkamp and Baumgartner ( 1998 ) . A trial of unconstrained theoretical account ( Model 1 ) produced X2 =1768.62 with 788 grades of freedom ( df ) as shown in Table 4. CFI was found to be 0.859 and RMSEA was 0.033. On the footing of these fit indices, the six-factor theoretical account is supported in all groups. These findings reveal that the four states exhibit the same simple factor construction, and the same baseline theoretical account can be used for each sample population. The 2nd theoretical account ( Model 2 ) examines whether or non the factor covariance are equal across the four states. This was accomplished by restraining the I» to be equal across groups. The consequences in Table 4 show that the chi-square difference between the simple construction theoretical account ( Model 1 ) and the equal discrepancy theoretical account ( Model 2 ) was 135 with 48 df. This is important at P & lt ; 0.05, although the chi-square trials is important, declarative of a hapless tantrum, the other goodness-of-fit indices indicated a good tantrum. Steenkamp and Baumgartner ( 1998 ) commented chi-square trials that “ it has been observed that one should non trust entirely on the chi-square difference trial as it suffers from the same well-known jobs as the chi-square trial for measuring overall theoretical account tantrum ( see, e.g. , Anderson and Gerbing 1988 ; Marsh and Grayson 1990 ) ” . Therefore, Steenkamp and Baumgartner ( 1998 ) recommend utilizing the following four alternate fit indices: the root mean square mistake of estimate ( RMSEA ) ; the consistent Akaike information standard ( CAIC ) , the Comparative Fit Index ( CFI ) ; and the Tucker-Lewis Index ( TLI ) or nonnormed fit index ( NNFI ) . The addition in chi-square between theoretical account 2 and model 3 is important, I”X2 =239.05 with I”df=57. However, the staying goodness-of-fit indices ( TLI=0.815, CFI=0.821, and RMSEA=0.035 ) , which are less sensitive to try size, show a less pronounced lessening in tantrum. Overall, we find support for configural invariability and partial support for measuring invariability. Our findings suggest that the factor burdens, factor correlativities and factor discrepancy are invariant across states. The mistake discrepancies are non invariant across states. However, the invariability of mistake discrepancies is typically regarded as the least of import restraint ( Marsh, 1994 ) .
[ Insert Table 4 here ] : Measurement invariability trials through a CFA constrained at several degrees
Consequences for Hypotheses Testing
Table 5 shows path coefficients of four states. In Taiwan, the resource planning substructure has important and positive impacts on the work force reform, with the standardised way coefficients 0.15. The e-commerce substructure has important and positive impacts on the workplace reform and work force reform, with the standardised way coefficients 0.31 and 0.17 severally. The workplace reform positively affects the work force reform ; and, the work force reform positively influences the organisational construction reform, with the standardised way coefficients 0.38 and 0.94 severally. The work force reform strongly influences company net incomes with the standardised way coefficients 0.05. The consequences in Taiwan support hypotheses 1b, 2b, 3a, 3b, 3c, and 4a.
In the United State, the resource planning substructure significantly affects BPR ( way coefficients are 0.19, 0.34, and -0.19 for workplace reforms, work force reforms, and organisational construction reforms severally ) , back uping hypotheses 2a, 3b, and 4b. The consequences back up hypothese 2b and 4c, corroborating that the electronic commercialism substructure significantly changes workplace ( path coefficient = 0.39 ) and organisational construction ( path coefficient = 0.24 ) . Net income is straight affected by workplace reforms ( path coefficient = 0.16 ) , work force reforms ( path coefficient = 0.13 ) , and negatively by organisational construction reforms ( path coefficient = -0.09 ) . Net income is besides indirectly influenced by workplace reforms ( path coefficient = 0.37 ) through work force reforms. However, it is negatively influenced by work force reforms ( path coefficient = 0.63 ) through organisational construction reforms. The consequences therefore support hypotheses 1a, 1b, 3a, and 4a.
The ICT acceptance in Korea tells a similar narrative. The resource planning substructure has important and positive impacts on organisational construction reforms with the standardised way coefficients 0.19, and the workplace reform, with the standardised way coefficients 0.10. However, it negatively influenced work force reforms. The e-commerce substructure has important and positive impact on the work force reform ( path coefficients 0.17 ) . Consequences of ICT-enabled BPR support hypotheses 2a, 3c, and 4b. The workplace reform positively affects the work force reform ; and, the work force reform positively influences the organisational construction reform, with the standardised way coefficients 0.56 and 0.75 severally. Net income is positively and straight affected by workplace reforms ( path coefficient = 0.27 ) and organisational construction reforms ( path coefficient = 0.12 ) . Net income is besides negatively affected by work force reforms ( path coefficient = -0.28 ) , the consequences therefore support hypotheses 1a, 1c, 2a, 3a, 3b, 3c, and 4a.
In Chile, the resource planning substructure significantly affects workplace reforms ( path coefficient = 0.09. The electronic commercialism substructure has important and positive impacts on workplace ( path coefficient = 0.26 ) . Net income is straight affected by workplace reforms ( path coefficient = 0.10 ) . Net income is besides indirectly influenced by workplace reforms ( path coefficient = 0.34 ) through work force reform and by work force reforms ( path coefficient = 0.43 ) through organisational construction reforms. The consequences therefore support hypotheses 1a, 2a, 2b, 3a, and 3b.
[ Insert Table 5 here ] : Consequences of structural equation theoretical account analysis of single state theoretical accounts
Research Question 1 asks if there are differences of ICT acceptance impacts on BPR among states. The resource planning substructure significantly makes houses in USA to prosecute in work force reforms than houses in Korea and Chile. The resource planning substructure besides encourages more USA houses to telecommunicate for undertakings accomplishment than Korea and Chile houses. The substructure reforms organisational construction in Korea merely. The e-commerce substructure alterations more USA houses to telecommunicate than Taiwan and Chile. Firms in Taiwan exhibits more ECI enabled workplace re-optimization than Chile. It besides improves workforce efficiency for houses in Taiwan and Korea, and, reforms organisational construction of America endeavors. ( add account )
Research Question 2 attempts to calculate out the differences of BPR impacts on net income among states. Workplace reforms positively influence net incomes of houses in Korea the most, houses in the USA the 2nd, and houses in Chile the 3rd. Work force reforms positively and significantly act upon net incomes of houses in the USA the most and houses in Taiwan the 2nd. Re-optimization of organisational construction brings better net incomes for Korean houses. Though some BPR dimensions do non excert impacts on net incomes straight, they do impact net incomes indirectly ( necessitate mentions ) in this survey: For houses of all four states, net incomes can be indirectly influenced by workplace reforms through work force reforms, and by work force reforms through organisational construction reforms. ( add account )
Decision and treatment
ICTs play an of import function in concern patterns and direction. Yet, many executions of ICTs end with hapless consequences ( Dryden, 1998 ; Gallagher, 1998 ) . Enterprises may successfully hold on cybernation final payments merely if they engage in re-optimization of concern procedures to aline with ICTs ( Al-Qirim, 2007 ; Buckby et al. , 2008 ; Francalanci & A ; Morabito, 2008 ) . Past surveies seldom investigate what ICTs that houses follow, how ICTs affect concerns, and how ICT-enabled alterations influence concern public presentation at international degree. This research applies multiple-group structural equations patterning to prove the Cross-Nation ICT-enabled BPR Model on informations derived from cross-national research.
By look intoing 1193 senior information systems directors from four states, the consequences show that the resource planning substructure and the e-commerce substructure positively affect some dimensions of concern procedure technology. They are consistent with the literature ( Ahadi, 2006 ; Lee et al. , 2009 ; Sarkar & A ; Jagjit, 2006 ; Wymer & A ; Regan, 2005 ; Ziaul, Faizul & A ; Ken, 2006 ) . The consequences besides discover ICT-enabled BPR affects enterprise public presentation ( Hammer & A ; Champy, 1993 ; Al-Qirim, 2007 ) . In Taiwan, ICT acceptance makes houses to prosecute alterations in footings of accepting mechanization in concern patterns, outsourcing concern maps, and enrolling people that have ICT accomplishments or cognition. Firms tend to utilize the e-commerce substructure to get the better of infinite and clip restraints for communication, interchanging information, and completing undertakings. Taiwan used to be a major maker state that exports assorted merchandises. As China economic system has grown, many Chinese houses shift their production lines to China by either undertaking out labour intensive operation or set uping subordinates in China ( China Review News, 2009 ) . By telecommunicating the parent company in Taiwan utilizing ICTs seems logical.
However, for houses in the United State, two negative important way coefficients were from RPI to OS and from OS to Profit, with the standardised way coefficients -0.19 and -0.09, severally. In Korea, two negative important way coefficients were from RPI to WF and from WF to Profit, with the standardised way coefficients -0.15 and -0.28, severally. The grounds of why RPI does n’t hold positive impacts on OS in US might be that because house size in US is much bigger than other state in our study. Further, it besides impacts the net income, because house may necessitate more capital to keep operation.
In Korea, WF has negative and important influence on net income which means work force such as mechanization of map did non leads to human resource released. ICT implement is immense and long term investing, Thouin et Al. ( 2009 ) suggest that IT activities that have become trade goods ( holding ‘low specificity ‘ ) should be outsourced to better the house ‘s fiscal public presentation.
This paper contributes to IS research by offering some penetrations and researching BPR generalisation by transverse national comparing. First, it provides empirical grounds to analyze impacts of ICTs parts to concern procedure reengineering and public presentation. Prior research on this subject normally focused on BPR theoretical treatment and execution schemes based on instance survey. What has been mostly losing is development of empirical grounds of generalisation. Second, research normally focuses on one or two endeavor application, such as KM or ERP and deficiency in offering a complete image of the relationships between IT acceptance and BPR ( Lee, Chu, & A ; Tseng, 2009 ) . The findings will be valuable in understanding the complexness of assorted ICT acceptances and foretelling result of BPR. Finally, we exploded the national difference on ICTs acceptance and its impacts on fiscal public presentation. It should be noted that BPR instruments is non a important determiner of public presentation. This incompatibility with anterior literature may be because ICT investing may hold clip hold consequence on it and fiscal index is non the lone index for public presentation appraisal. For illustration, Santhanam & A ; Hartono ( 2003 ) remind that anterior fiscal public presentation of houses must be taken into consideration in future trials of IT capableness.
Despite all the attention given to this survey, there are several restrictions of our research should be considered in farther research. First of wholly, we do hold Europe informations signifier BIT research. However due to pattern converge and some losing value jobs, we eliminated European state from this paper. Second, we use five-point Likert-type response format to inquire alteration of fiscal public presentation in houses alternatively of utilizing ROA or ROI informations, because it is hard to acquire fiscal index of each sample in every state. Third, as a national comparing, there might be study prejudices related to the subjective nature of the information. CIO is our lone source about ICT acceptance and public presentation rating may do cognitive prejudices ; nevertheless, James & A ; Hatten ( 1995 ) have demonstrated this type of measuring is valid. Notwithstanding these restrictions, this survey has demonstrated that incorporating the ICT impacts and concern procedure re-engineering could supply farther apprehension of ICTs part to steadfast public presentation. We recommend two forms for farther research: ( 1 ) add more state in survey ; ( 2 ) use economic location class to state the difference on each part, such as: Asia, American, and European, in order to derive cognition and apprehension on the procedures by which houses use ICTs to back up their public presentation and civilization difference.