Formulation And Evaluation Of Losartan Potassium Buccal Patches Biology Essay

Hypromellose pulverization is a stable stuff, although it is hygroscopic after drying. Solutions are stable at pH 3-11. Increasing temperature reduces the viscousness of solutions. Hypromellose undergoes a reversible sol-gel transmutation upon warming and chilling, severally. The gel point is 50-908C, depending upon the class and concentration of stuff. Aqueous solutions are relatively enzyme-resistant, supplying good viscousness stableness during long-run storage. However, aqueous solutions are apt to microbic spoilage and should be preserved with an antimicrobic preservative: when hypromellose is used as a viscosity-increasing agent in ophthalmic solutions, benzalkonium chloride is normally used as the preservative. Aqueous solutions may besides be sterilized by autoclaving ; the curdled polymer must be redispersed on chilling by agitating. Hypromellose pulverization should be stored in a well-closed container, in a cool, dry topographic point.

Hydroxypropyl cellulose pulverization is a stable stuff, although it is hygroscopic after drying. Aqueous solutions of hydroxypropyl cellulose are stable at pH 6.0-8.0, with the viscousness of solutions being comparatively unaffected. Therefore, for drawn-out storage, an antimicrobic preservative should be added to aqueous solutions. Solutions of hydroxypropyl cellulose in organic dissolvers do non by and large require preservatives. Ultraviolet visible radiation will besides degrade hydroxypropyl cellulose and aqueous solutions may therefore lessening somewhat in viscousness if exposed to visible radiation for several months. Aqueous hydroxypropyl cellulose solutions have optimum stableness when the pH is maintained at 6.0-8.0, and besides when the solution is protected from visible radiation, heat, and the action of micro-organisms. Hydroxypropyl cellulose pulverization should be stored in a well closed container in a cool, dry topographic point.

Carboxy methyl cellulose Na is widely used in unwritten and topical pharmaceutical preparations chiefly for its viscousness increasing belongingss. Viscous aqueous solutions are used to suspend pulverizations intended for either topical application or unwritten and parenteral disposal. Carboxymethyl cellulose Na is to boot one of the chief ingredients of ego adhesive ostomy, lesion attention and dermatological spots where it is used to absorb lesion exudates or trans cuticular H2O and perspiration.

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Applications: Hydroxyethyl cellulose is a nonionized, water-soluble polymer widely used in pharmaceutical preparations. It is chiefly used as a thickener agent in ophthalmic and topical preparations, although it is besides used as a binder and film-coating agent for tablets. It is present in lubricant readyings for dry oculus, contact lens attention, and dry oral cavity. The concentration of hydroxyethyl cellulose used in a preparation is dependent upon the dissolver and the molecular weight of the class. Hydroxyethyl cellulose is besides widely used in cosmetics.

Description: Hydroxyethyl cellulose occurs as a light sunburn or pick to white colored, odourless and tasteless, hygroscopic pulverization.

Typical Properties:

Ash: 2.5 % w/w for Cellosize ;

3.5 % w/w for Natrosol.

Density ( majority ) : 0.35-0.61 g/cm3 for Cellosize ;

0.60 g/cm3 for Natrosol.

Melting point: Softens at 135-140 & A ; deg ; C, decomposes at about 205 & A ; deg ; C.

Solubility: Hydroxyethyl cellulose is soluble in either hot or cold H2O, organizing clear, smooth, unvarying solutions. Practically indissoluble in propanone, ethyl alcohol ( 95 % ) , ether, methylbenzene, and most other organic dissolvers. in some polar organic dissolvers, such as the ethanediols, hydroxyethyl cellulose either crestless waves or is partly soluble.

Stability and Storage Conditionss:

Hydroxyethyl cellulose pulverization is a stable though hygroscopic stuff. Aqueous solutions of hydroxyethyl cellulose are comparatively stable at pH 2-12 with the viscousness of solutions being mostly unaffected. However, solutions are less stable below pH 5 owing to hydrolysis. At high pH, oxidization may happen. Solutions may be subjected to freeze-thawing, high-temperature storage, or boiling without precipitation or gelation occurring. For drawn-out storage, an antimicrobic preservative should hence be added to aqueous solutions. Aqueous solutions of hydroxyethyl cellulose may besides be sterilized by autoclaving. Hydroxyethyl cellulose pulverization should be stored in a well closed container, in a cool, dry topographic point.


Structural Formula:

Synonym: E1201 ; Kollidon ; Plasdone ; Polyvidone ; Povidone.

Chemical name and CAS Registry Number:

1-Ethenyl-2-pyrrolidione homopolymer, [ 9003-39-8 ]

Emperical Formula: ( C6H9NO ) N

Molecular Weight: 2,500-3,000,000

Functional Class: Disintegrant ; disintegration assistance ; suspending agent ; tablet binder.

Applications: Although povidone is used in a assortment of pharmaceutical preparations, it is chiefly used in solid-dosage signifiers. In tableting, povidone solutions are used as binders in wet-granulation procedures Povidone is besides added to pulverize blends in the dry signifier and granulated in situ by the add-on of H2O, intoxicant, or hydroalcoholic solutions. Povidone is used as a solubilizer in unwritten and parenteral preparations and has been shown to heighten disintegration of ill soluble drugs from solid-dosage signifiers.

Description: Povidone occurs as a all right, white to cream-colored coloured, odorless or about odourless, hygroscopic pulverization. Povidones with K-values equal to or lower than 30 are manufactured by spray-drying and occur as domains. Povidone K-90 and higher K-value povidones are manufactured by membranophone drying and occur as home bases.

Typical Properties

Acidity/alkalinity: pH =3.0-7.0 ( 5 % W/V aqueous solution ) .

Density ( majority ) : 0.29-0.39 g/ cm3 for Plasdone.

Density ( tapped ) : 0.39-0.54 g/ cm3 for Plasdone.

Density ( true ) : 1.180 g/ cm3

Flowability: 20 g/s for povidone K-15 ;

16 g/s for povidone K-29/32

Melting point: Softens at150 & A ; deg ;

Moisture content: Povidone is really hygroscopic, important sums of wet being absorbed at low comparative humidnesss.

Solubility: Freely soluble in acids, trichloromethane, ethyl alcohol ( 95 % ) , ketones, methyl alcohol, and H2O ; practically indissoluble in quintessence, hydrocarbons, and mineral oil. In H2O, the concentration of a solution is limited merely by the viscousness of the ensuing solution, which is a map of the K-value.

Viscosity: The viscousness of aqueous povidone solutions depends on both the concentration and the molecular weight of the polymer employed.

Stability and Storage conditions:

Povidone darkens to some extent on warming at 150 & A ; deg ; C, with a decrease in aqueous solubility. It is stable to a short rhythm of heat exposure around 110-130 & A ; deg ; C ; steam sterilisation of an aqueous solution does non alarm its belongingss. Aqueous solutions are susceptible to model growing and accordingly necessitate the add-on of suited preservatives.

Povidone may be stored under ordinary conditions without undergoing decomposition or debasement. However, since the pulverization is hygroscopic, it should be stored in an air tight container in a cool, dry topographic point.


Structural expression:

Synonym: 1,2 – benzine dicarboxylic acid dibutyl ester ; n-butyl phthalate ; DBP ; dibutyl benzene – 1,2- dicarboxylate ; di-n-butyl phthalate ; Kodaflex DBP ; Phthalic acid dibutyl ester.

CAS Registry Number: [ 84-74-2 ]

Empirical expression: C16H22 O4

Molecular Weight: 278.35

Functional class: Dibutyl phthalate is used as a plasticiser in movie coatings ; It is besides used as an insect repellent, chiefly for the impregnation of vesture.

Description: A clear, colorless or faintly colored oily liquid.

Typical belongingss:

Boiling Point: 340OC

Density: i‚» 1.05g/cm3

Brassy point: 1710C ( Open cup )

Freezing point: -350C

Refractive index: nD20 = 1.491 – 1.493

Viscosity ( dynamic ) 15m Pa s ( 15cp ) at 250C

Solubility: Very soluble in propanone, benzine, ethyl alcohol ( 95 % ) and ether ; soluble 1 in 2500 of H2O.

Stability and Storage Conditionss:

Dibutyl phthalate should be stored in a well-closed container in a cool, dry, location. Containers may be risky when empty since they can incorporate merchandise residues such as bluess and liquids.

GLYCERIN122 ( seven )

Structural expression:

Synonym: Croderol ; E422 ; Glycerine ; Glycon G-100 ; Kemstrene ; Pricerine ; 1,2,3 – Propanetriol ; Trihydroxy propane glycerin.

Chemical Name and CAS Registry Number:

Propane – 1,2,3, – triol, [ 56-81-5 ]

Empirical expression: C3H8 O3

Molecular Weight: 92.09

Applications: Glycerin is used in a broad assortment of pharmaceutical preparations including unwritten, auricular, ophthalmic, topical and parenteral readyings. It is besides used in cosmetics and as a nutrient additive.

In topical pharmaceutical preparations and cosmetics, glycerol is used chiefly for its humectant and cream belongingss. In parenteral preparations glycerol is chiefly used as a dissolver. In unwritten solutions glycerol is used as a sweetener agent, anti-microbial preservative and viscousness increasing agent. Glycerin is besides used as a plasticiser of gelatin in the production of soft gelatin capsules and gelatin suppositories. Glycerin is to boot employed as a curative agent in a assortment of clinical applications.

Functional Class: Antimicrobial preservative ; cream ; humectant ; Plasticizer ; dissolver ; dulcifying agent ; Tonicity agent.

Description: Glycerin is a clear, colorless, odourless, syrupy, hygroscopic liquid ; it has a sweet gustatory sensation, about 0.6 times every bit sweet as saccharose.

Typical belongingss:

Boiling point: 290oC ( With decomposition )

Density: 1.2656 g/cm3 at 15oC.

1.2636g/cm3 at 20oC.

1.2620g/cm3 at 25oC.

Brassy point: 176oC ( Open cup ) .

Hygroscopicity: Hygroscopic.

Melting point: 17.8oC.

Osmolarity: A 2.6 % v/v aqueous solution is iso-osmotic with


Refractive Index: nD 15 = 1.4758.

nD 20 = 1.4746

nD 25 = 1.4730

Vapour Density ( Relative ) : 3.17 ( air=1 ) .



Solubility at 20oC


Slightly soluble


Practically indissoluble.


Practically indissoluble.

Ethanol ( 95 % )



1 in 500

Ethyl ethanoate

1 in 11




Practically indissoluble



Concentration of Aqueous solutions ( % w/w

Viscosity at 20oC ( m pas )