1. Contribution of obligatory and voluntary piscaries statistics to the cognition of whitefish population in Lake Annecy ( France ) . Published in “Fisheries Research”
2. Evaluation of nutrient web and fish dietetic niches in oligotrophic Lake Annecy by combine usage of intestine content and stable isotope analysis. Submitted for publication in “Lake and Reservoir Management”
3. Preliminary trophic web analysis of alpestrine Lake Annecy ( France ) utilizing an Ecopath theoretical account. Published in Knowledge and Management of Aquatic Ecosystems.
4. Growth and catch tendencies of whitefish ( Coregonus lavaretus ) population in oligotrophic Lake Annecy, France. Under alteration
5. Comparative effectivity, growing and dispersion of stocked Arctic char ( Salvelinus alpinus ) from different beginnings in Lake Annecy. Submitted for publication in Knowledge and Management of Aquatic Ecosystems.
6. Application of Ecopath theoretical account to analyze the trophic web of an oligotrophic subarctic lake. ( Short Communication ) . Under work.
SILA Le Syndicate Mixte du Lac d’Annecy
SIA Stable Isotope Analysis
GCA Gut Content Analysis
EBFM Ecosystem-based piscary direction
ANOSIM Analysis of Similarities
SIMPER Similarity per centums
YoY Young of the Year
YCS Year Class Strength
ALP Annecy Lac Peche
CPUE Catch per unit Attempt
VBGF Von Bertalanffy Growth Function
LGC Lake Geneva
Law Lake Annecy natural state
LGW Lake Geneva fish
DDAF Direction Departementale de l’Agriculture et de la Foret de Haute-Savoie ONEMA Office national de l’eau et diethylstilbestrols milieux aquatiques
EwE Ecopath with Ecosim
M Natural Mortality
PPR Primary Production Required
To Daniel Gerdeaux whose wisdom, endowment tremendous accomplishments and counsel has made all this undertaking possible and helped me to work out the proficient jobs and decide different things.
To all the research and administrative staff at INRA Thonon, particularly Valerie Hamelet for all her proficient aid and? ? ? for seting a smiling on my face every forenoon
To my late male parent for all his inspiration at start of my calling, my female parent for her un-measurable love and encouragement, my brothers and their household for all their support over the old ages. Particularly batch of strength has been obtained from my darling married woman Sidra, who came to my life during last twelvemonth of my thesis and inspired me to complete the work good in clip.
I would wish to thank all my friends and co-workers who cheered me and ever lent a back uping manus when required.
I besides appreciate the aid all the anglers and commercial fishermen of Lake Annecy, particularly Bernad Curt for his aid during samples and informations aggregation.
I am besides thankful to Direction Departementale de l’Agriculture et de la Foret de Haute-Savoie ( DDAF ) , Syndicat Mixte du Lac d’Annecy ( SILA ) and, Annecy Lac Peche ( ALP ) and Office national de l’eau et diethylstilbestrols milieux aquatiques ( ONEMA ) for partial research supports and aid in informations aggregation and samplings.
This thesis would hold been impossible to carry on without financement of HEC, Pakistan through SFERE, France and INRA France for scholarship grants, other supports all the academic and administrative aid during my survey.
I would besides wish to thank Ross Tallman, and Fisheries and Oceans Canada for supplying me an opertunity to work at Freshwater Institute Winnipeg under Canada Interchange programme during the last twelvemonth of my PhD surveies.
The thesis focuses on different facets of ecology and direction of commercially of import fish species in Lake Annecy: an oligotrophic lake situated in Rhone-Alpes part of France. The chief aims of the survey were to measure the growing of whitefish and Arctic char in Lake Annecy, study the trophic interactions in foodweb utilizing stable isotope analysis ( SIA ) and Gut Content Analysis ( GCA ) , and to suggest a trophic theoretical account of the lake utilizing Ecopath with Ecosim ( EwE ) package utilizing informations collected largely during the last 10 old ages from commercial and recreational piscaries monitoring.
Lake Annecy is of import for both recreational and commercial piscaries and is under uninterrupted obligatory monitoring for fish gimmicks since 1986. About 20 voluntary anglers besides provided extra informations about their fish gimmicks since 1992. The piscaries data from different beginnings was compared for mensural length distributions in the commercial piscary and the estimated length distributions from angler ‘s gimmicks filtered by a selectivity curve. Statistically the two distributions were found to be the same. The CPUE calculated from both obligatory and unpaid angler informations are besides good correlated. The consequences showed that voluntary anglers catch informations could supply plenty dependable information about the population size and construction and is dependable plenty to be a cost-efficient piscaries direction technique.
Temporal diet form was studied for five fish species in Lake Annecy utilizing C and N stable isotopes and intestine content analysis to look into their diet and nutrient web place during 10 old ages. Observations on tummy content informations reveal assortment of feeding wonts with some diet convergence between whitefish, Arctic char and perch during the spring months. Food resources appeared to be partitioned among the Lake Annecy fish community during summer growing months perchance restricting competitory interactions. Nitrogen isotopes indicated really low inter-specific variableness while ?13C showed fluctuation among fish species. Stable isotope analysis and multiple-source MixSIR commixture were found to be utile tools that can better the cognition about nutrient web kineticss when used in combination with gut content analysis. Data collected over more than 10 old ages from literature, study study and information from commercial and recreational piscaries was used for trophic analysis of Lake Annecy nutrient web with aid of Ecopath with Ecosim ( EwE ) package to show a trophic theoretical account. Detritus was found to be about 50 % of the entire system throughput and had an of import function in the lake ecosystem. The values of different ecosystem properties and dominance showed the stability of the ecosystem. Assorted trophic analysis indicated that zoobenthos had a positive consequence on most of the fish functional groups. The trophic transportation efficiency was highest in Lake Annecy at TL III Ecotrophic Efficiency of all commercially of import fish groups were less than 0.5, demoing sustainable piscaries. the per centum of Primary Production Required ( PPR ) to back up piscaries in Lake Annecy was 14.98 % of entire primary production which is slightly less than the planetary value of 23.6 % for fresh H2O lakes
Whitefish is the most of import commercial and recreational fish species in the lake. Growth of whitefish population of Lake Annecy was studied utilizing piscaries informations collected by recreational and commercial piscaries during last 20 old ages to measure any consequence of alteration in environment and denseness. Scales of whitefish collected from recreational and commercial fish gimmick were used to find age and to gauge back-calculated length. The consequences showed strong correlativity between annual mean of zooplankton biovolume and growing increase during 2nd twelvemonth. Some relationships were found between whitefish growing and altering fish gimmicks. However, whitefish growing was non found to dependent on any alteration in average temperature, entire phosphoric concentration and YCS of cohorts. Arctic char Salvelinus alpinus is being stocked in Lake Annecy with fish seed coming from different beginnings to better the gimmicks. The effectivity, growing and dispersion after release of fingerlings of Arctic char stocked in 1997 and 2001 were studied. Juveniles produced from hatchery confined brood stock were found to be more effectual in fish gimmick and besides showed better dispersion and growing after carrying every bit compared to dwell stock caught from wild. The growing of offspring of wild Arctic char brood stock was besides non really much different from hatchery reared stock. Mean effectivity of stocking was found to be 14 % . The part of natural genteelness was found to be about half in the gimmicks. The surveies above provided some utile information about the current position of Lake Annecy piscaries and nutrient web and could be helpful T and for future direction of Lake Annecy from piscaries and ecosystem direction point of position.
Ecosystem based attack is acquiring importance for proper piscaries direction of aquatic resources and piscaries directors are get downing to catch the potencies of ecosystem-based piscary direction ( EBFM ) to better the sustainability of piscaries resources. To work on ecosystem degree, an apprehension of ecosystem nutrient web and trophic construction is really indispensable for fishery appraisal and direction. The individual species attack is besides still manipulable in piscaries direction. Data on fish growing are really of import for measuring the position of piscaries of the peculiar species and how that species is reacting to the development ( Walter and Martell 2004 ) . Such informations can be helpful for the piscaries directors to be after the development of the species. Fish stocking is one of the of import facet of piscaries direction and has been used as a direction tool for centuries. Analyzing the success of stocked fish is one of the of import undertakings of piscaries direction.
Lake Annecy is one of the most pure lake in Europe and really celebrated for H2O athleticss and angling. It is an oligotrophic lake with an mean entire P concentration around 4 µg.l-1. Despite being an oligotrophic lake, there are a many possible nutrient resources for fishes that busying both littoral and oceanic home grounds, including benthal invertebrates, zooplankton, macrophytes and other fish. The entire fish output from Lake Annecy is 8-15 kg.ha-1.year-1 ( Gerdeaux et al. , 2002 ) , which is considered as good for an oligotrophic lake ( Toss offing et al. , 1990 ) . The fish zoology of Lake Annecy is dominated by whitefish but besides many other commercially of import fish species coexist in the lake including Arctic char, trout, perch, expressway and roach. The species composing and trophic position of Lake Annecy nutrient web has non changed much changed during last few 20 old ages. However there are some non additive fluctuations in the biomass of its different constituents both at upper and lower degree particularly in zooplankton ( Gerdeaux et al. , 2009 ) . There are besides some non additive fluctuations in fish gimmicks particularly of salmonids during last few old ages ( Gerdeaux, 2008 ) . Therefore, apprehension of the nutrient web construction in the Lake Annecy and growing of of import fish species is really indispensable to back up current and future piscaries direction determinations.
To uncover the replies to these inquiries, the chief aims were
* To measure the importance of commercial and recreational piscaries informations in piscaries direction
* To look into the niche segregation between different fish species during different seasons by scrutiny of diet and stable isotope analysis.
* To analyze the trophic interaction between fish species and their possible quarry.
* To measure the growing of whitefish during the last 20 old ages to look into any diminution
* To measure the stocking and growing of Arctic char coming from different beginnings
1.1 The Site
Lake Annecyis a oligotrophic perialpine lake of glacial beginning situated at an height of 445.6 metre in Haute-Savoiedepartment of Rhone Alps part in France ( 45o50’N, 6o40’E ) . Lake Annecy was formed about 18,000 old ages ago, as a consequence of thaw of big Alpine glaciers. It is the 2nd biggest lake situated wholly in France, after theLake Bourget. It is besides described as one the most beautiful lakes in Europe with mountains encircling the full lake and reflecting in clear sky H2O. Besides considered as one of the cleanest lake in Europe because of rigorous environmental ordinances. Lake Annecy was an oligotrophic lake upto 1940, s, but H2O quality of the lake started degrading from 1945 to 1960, s because of addition in the anthropogenetic activities. Preventive steps were started in 1967 by constitution of intervention works. Since so oligotrophication is taking topographic point. It is besides a really celebrated tourer finish for H2O athleticss and athleticss piscaries. The lake is fed by many little rivers from the environing mountains including Ire, Eaumorte, Laudon, BornetteandBiolon.
Mercantile establishment of lake is through Thiou River flows out from the northern terminal of the lake to joins the Fier River, and eventually enters the Rhone River. It has a surface country of 27 km2, a shoreline length of 35 kilometers, and a maximal deepness of 64.7 m. The lake consists of two basins. The northern chief basin histories for approximately 78 % of the whole lake country, while the southern sub-basin histories for merely 22 % of the entire lake country ( Figure 1 ) . The temperatures on the surface seldom exceed 23°C in the summer and are ne’er below 4°C in the winter. Lake Annecy is a monomictic lake ne’er covered by ice. Important physicochemical parametric quantity of Lake Annecy is given in Table 1.
Fishing is a really of import pattern in Lake Annecy. Lake Annecy is a public H2O for piscaries direction and it fisheries is being managed by Departmental Directorate of Agriculture and Forest ( DDAF ) on the behalf of the community. The denseness of fish was really hapless at the beginning of nineteenth century as compared to other lakes in the part. At the terminal of the nineteenth century, Whitefish and Arctic char were introduced in the lake in 1890 and 1888 severally ( Le Roux 1908 ) . Introduction of new species has resulted in a typical piscaries composing of subalpine lakes with development of whitefish and Arctic char. There are two types of piscaries in Lake Annecy, amateurs ( anglers ) and professionals ( commercial fishermen ) . The figure of professional fishermen was 38 in 1968 which was reduced drastically to 4 in 1998. At present, figure of recreational fishermen is around 1100.
The piscaries resources of Lake Annecy are non really diverse, but few species are extremely regarded by both recreational and commercial fishermen for athletics and pecuniary value. The present fish community is chiefly composed of salmonids lake trout ( Salmo trutta ) , Arctic char ( Salvelinus alpinus ) and whitefish ( Coregonus lavaretus ) which represent more than 80 % of the output. Pike ( Esox lucius ) and perch ( Perca fluviatilis ) are besides caught and bring forth 10 % of the output. Burbot ( Lota lota ) and some cyprinids ( roach ( Rutilus Rutilus ) , bream ( Abramis Brama ) , carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) ) make up the last 10 % . Lake Annecy is typically a coregonid lake ( Gerdeaux et al. 2006 ) . Like all other large European lakes, the piscaries in Lake Annecy besides depend on whitefish. The whitefish population is maintained in lake without carrying whereas the Arctic char was invariably stocked because of the deficiency of appropriate spawning sites. There is batch of fluctuations in piscaries gimmicks in Lake Annecy during last few decennaries particularly in whitefish. During the 1980 ‘s, commercial fishermen were catching two tierces of the entire gimmicks of whitefish which were less than 15 tones but figure of anglers increased and they asked for equal portion in the piscaries resources. The fishing force per unit area increased a batch during 1990 ‘s and the entire whitefish gimmicks were frequently above 25 tones ( 9.3 kilogram. ha-1 ) with immense inter-annual fluctuations. After a increasing tendency of entire gimmicks during 1990 ‘s, there is a diminishing tendency with really low gimmicks in 2006 and 2007. The fluctuations of gimmicks are non wholly synchronal between and amature and commercial fishermen. Arctic char, the 2nd most of import piscaries in Lake Annecy is largely shared by the anglers acquiring about 88 % of the gimmicks. It besides showed annual fluctuations during last few decennaries.
Many surveies have been made on physical, chemical and biological facets of Lake Annecy and its different functional groups by different research workers, and establishments since 1960 ‘s. From 1966 to 1981 and since 1990, the Lake Annecy is monitored by SILA ( Le Syndicate Mixte du Lac d’Annecy ) for physical, chemical and biological parametric quantities of Lake Annecy with aid of Lakes Hydrobiology Station ( INRA ) Thonon. Since 1987, angling at Lake Annecy is followed every twelvemonth with aid of commercial and recreational fishermen. A comprehensive study was published by Gerdeaux et Al. ( 2000 ) on trophic maps of Lake Annecy as a portion of 9th Contract Plan of Rhone-Alpes Region Environment Programme. That study includes surveies on Macrobenthos, Zooplankton, Phytoplankton, Microorganisms and diet of some of import fishes. Some work has been done on feeding wonts of juvenile and grownup fishes in Lake Annecy. Cretenoy and Gerdeaux ( 1997 ) studied the alterations in diet of whitefish larvae from with growing. Gerdeaux et Al. ( 2002 ) studied the diet and seasonal forms of nutrient composing of whitefish in Lake Annecy and compared it with the diet of the few other species of the fish community. Onneville et Al ( 2007 ) studied ontogenetic alterations in the diet of whitefish larvae and observed that denseness and handiness of the possible quarry could impact the kineticss of the ontogenetic alterations in the diet. Domaizon et Al. ( 2006 ) found that mixotrophic mastigophorans represent an of import nexus in the flux of stuffs through planktonic nutrient webs in Lake Annecy surveies the systematic composing and their graze rates of mastigophoran in Lake Annecy.
Some work has been done on the benthal zoology of Lake Annecy. Muthon and Dubois ( 2001 ) studied the Molluscs communities in littoral zone of lake Annecy and found Lake Annecy an oligohumic lake characterized by a lessening in organic affair content with deepness. Mouthon ( 2002 ) compared the molluscs community in Lake Annecy with the one surveies during 1930 ‘s. Verneaux and Verneaux ( 2002 ) studied the bathymetric form of the macrobenthic community of Lake Annecy and found it related to an optimum efficiency of organic affair assimilation within the nutrient web and demoing higher biogenic capacity. Borderelle ( 2005 ) surveies the biological quality appraisal of Lake Annecy, utilizing Lake Biological Index and found that Lake Annecy showed much higher LBI value every bit compared to some other lakes in the part. Some work has been done on the seasonal biomass of fish community utilizing hydroacoustics. Guillard et Al ( 2006 ) studied YoY perch biomass by hydroacoustic and found an addition in YoY perch biomass during summer and perchance associated with prostration of theDaphniapopulation by late July, and copepods one month subsequently. Masson et Al ( 2001 ) besides found that fish biomass in Lake Annecy was dominated by YoY perch in upperwarmer beds and salmonids in the colder and oxygenated deep beds. Fish biomass was distributed alonga strong increasing onshore to offshore gradient at dark, whereas crustacean quarry showed a decreasing gradient. Dubois et Al. ( 1988 ) studied the aquatic zoology of lake Annecy and found submerged flora dominated by Charophyceae. Wajtenka et Al ( 1988 ) and Caranhac and Gerdeaux ( 2000 ) presented a size-and age-based simulation theoretical account for measuring direction schemes of double development of whitefish in Lake Annecy.
Some research workers have used stable isotopes analysis to analyze the lake ecology. Gerdeaux and Perga ( 2006 ) studied the trophic position of Lake Annecy with aid of SIA of whitefish graduated tables and found merely minor alterations during the 50 old ages. Perga and Gerdeaux ( 2006 ) besides used ?13C and ?15N values in crustaceous taxa and found the crustaceous nutrient web of Lake Annecy being much composite. The crustaceous taxa seemingly obtained theircarbonfrom different primary beginnings and their comparative trophic places changed during the twelvemonth. Dufour et Al ( 2007 ) used C and O stable isotopes to predominate that ?13C values in concurrence with ?18O values from whitefish otoliths in lake Annecy and discovered that it can be used as powerful placeholders of fish environment, behaviour, and development. Perga et Al. ( 2010 ) reconstructed the alterations in the planktonic nutrient web of Lake Annecy over the past century utilizing paleoecological techniques, C and N stable isotope signatures of organic affair from deposits, and clip series informations and found relatively high export of phytoplankton-derived organic affair to the deposit as a consequence of strong top-down effects on the planktonic nutrient concatenation. Gerdeaux et Al. ( 1990 ) studied the consequence of stocking of Salmo trutta in Lake Annecy from 1964 to 1977 in Lake Annecy with aid of professional fishermen and found that growing of fish depends on size of carrying. No comprehensive survey has been made so far to analyze the trophic interactions in Lake Annecy with ecosystem attack.
2- Fisheries Management Tools & A ; Techniques
Management of piscaries resources is really of import to guarantee that the stocks could be harvested at sustainable degree. Fisheries direction tools can be divided loosely into two types, Input controls and end product controls. Input controls limit the sum of attempt fishermen can set into their fishing activities and therefore indirectly command the fish gimmicks eg figure of licences, the length and mesh size of cyberspaces etc. Output controls limits the sum of fish taken out from H2O, for illustration annually quota. Such controls are normally used for individual species direction and necessitate the usage of log books and controls. The recreational piscaries direction is a bit different from commercial as it non merely take into history the entire crop but besides the sharing of resources between the fishers. There are besides input controls for recreational piscaries eg methods or type of angling cogwheels or come-ons, and some end product controls like bag bounds, or monthly or one-year quota. Puting minimal legal size is besides a direction policy tool which is used to do certain that fish should non be caught at least before the 1st genteelness. But habitat direction is besides an of import portion of piscaries direction because piscaries direction can be effectual merely, when home ground will be managed decently.
2.1- Use of commercial and recreational gimmicks informations for piscaries direction
Fisheries direction requires high-quality observations and well-supported anticipations about the position and kineticss of fish populations. Proper planning and direction of piscaries resources depends upon the quality of informations. Because fish is hidden under the H2O, aggregation of piscaries informations is a dearly-won and clip devouring procedure and involves particular gill sacking, trap gauze or some inactive techniques such as electro-fishing and acoustic techniques creep study commercial gimmick monitoring and neither can supply all the needed information and all the methods are different in cost effectivity. Depending upon resources and aims, different schemes can be adopted. There are two chief types of piscaries informations. Fisheries-independent informations are collected through scientific studies whileFisheries-dependent informations are defined as piscary statistics collected straight from recreational and commercial fishing activities. Fishery dependent informations from recreational piscaries are indispensable for measuring the mortality and other emphasiss that result from fishing. These informations provide a direct step of the effectivity of direction and ordinance. The statistics obtained from recreational and commercial piscaries can besides be used for fish stock appraisals. Such informations besides provide information about fishing attempts, sorts and figure of cogwheels used, aim species and age and size composing of fish and aid to back up piscaries direction determinations. Such piscaries statistics are besides helpful to supply long term tendencies in comparative copiousness of mark species ( Sztramko, et al. , 1991 ; Kerr, 1998 ; Maclennan, 1996 ) . Anglers journals are normally used by the piscaries direction to garner information on recreational piscaries. Cooke et al. , ( 2000 ) demonstrated that angler ‘s journals can supply the bulk of informations for piscaries direction for specialised piscaries in Ontario. Several piscaries direction bureaus particularly in cardinal Europe and North America on a regular basis run such type to plan to roll up piscaries informations affecting anglers and commercial fishermen.
Angler journals are considered as comparatively low cost piscaries assessment tool to supervise piscaries. Many research workers have evaluated the effectivity of angler journals programmes and have found positive relationship between angler journals, creel studies and electrofishing ( Green et Al. 1986 ; Prentice et Al. 1995 ) . Several long term monitoring programmes have been developed and runned successfully particularly in North America and are by and large accepted as the most economic method of roll uping angler provided informations ( Cook et al. ? ? ? Pollock, 1994 ) . However there can be many prejudices related to the information provided by the anglers ‘ journals. One of the biggest job in anglers journals is the engagement of as many anglers as possible and so to test out the dependable informations. Such prejudices can be removed by choosing batch of voluntary anglers who could be trained technically for piscaries informations aggregation. Fisheries direction has some particular indexs to measure the piscaries including length frequence informations, average size or weight of single and catch per unit attempt ( CPUE ) . If it takes more attempt to catch the same sum of fish, it means that the fish stock is diminishing. Fisheries can be managed with bag bounds, size limitation, seasonal closers, and stock sweetenings.
2.2.1- Context of Study
Since 1992, a particular group of about 20 voluntary anglers was created at Lake Annecy in coaction with INRA and ALP to supply piscaries informations. They were trained to mensurate and weigh each fish they catch and maintain and besides entire length of each fish they catch & amp ; release. They besides provided information on the continuance, location of the fishing trip, figure of maulerss, the sex of the fish, and marker, if any on the stocked fish. It was the extra information to what obligatory provided by all the anglers and commercial fishermen. Length frequence informations, size or weight at gimmick and CPUE are two really of import tools for piscaries direction frequently collected as a footing for assorted types of growing and age appraisals and indices for piscaries direction. Therefore, it is interesting to analyze variableness of these parametric quantities derived from different beginnings. The specific aims of the present surveies are to measure the effectivity of piscaries informations provided by group of voluntaries by comparing length frequence distribution, average size at gimmick and CPUE and compare it with obligatory informations provided by other anglers and commercial gillnet piscaries. If piscaries statistics obtained from voluntary anglers are comparable to those from obligatory angling and commercial piscaries informations, the aggregation of informations from voluntaries can be a cost-efficient information beginning for piscaries direction
2.2.2- Studies done
Obligatory piscaries informations provided by the anglers, informations provided by voluntary fishermen and informations obtained from monitoring of commercial gimmicks between 1992-1997 was utilized for present survey. Length frequence distribution obtained from voluntary anglers informations was filtered with the gillnet selectivity curve ( Caranhac and Gerdeaux, 2000 ) and compared with the existent length frequence distribution obtained from commercial piscaries. Both the distributions were found statistically same. Average single weight taken from anglers obligatory log books was compared with weight obtained from commercial gimmick. The fluctuations in average weight were same in both type of piscaries, thought the scope of fluctuations was big in anglers catch than in commercial gimmick. Average figure of whitefish per trip and the average weight ( kilogram ) in a gillnet during one dark were used to cipher CPUE from recreational and commercial piscaries severally. There was no correlativity between commercial and recreational piscaries CPUE. However, strong relationship was found between obligatory and voluntary CPUE from recreational piscaries.
3-Studies of Trophic Interactions in Lakes
3.1Partitioning of Feeding Resources in Fish Communities
Speciess normally portion three types of resources: nutrient, infinite and clip. Fish normally prefer the home ground where eating is more profitable energetically ( Werner and Mittelbach, 1981 ) but inter-specific and intra-specific competitions have really strong influence on feeding behaviour and eating home ground. Competition for a resource such as nutrient are expected to be more strong between closely related species in the same community eg salmonids, since closely related species show really small evolutionary difference. Speciess in a fish community cut down the potency of any competition among them by resource breakdown along spacial and temporal axes ( Schoener, 1983 ; Piet and Guruge ) . However trophic separation has been pointed out as the most of import mechanism of resource breakdown in fish gatherings ( Ross, 1986 ) . From a trophic point of position, the different species within a fish community can feed on same type of nutrient but they can make so in changing sums and from different topographic points. Fish resource breakdown can be surveies with aid of dietetic informations ( Linke et al. 2001 ) . Analysis of interaction among coexisting species with a niche convergence index is utile to uncover the significance of different niche parametric quantities in community and how these niche dimensions are used by fishes to cut down competition and let species to coexist with partionining of resources. ( Macpherson 1981 ) . The diet resource breakdown among species can be checked with Schoener ‘s Index ( Schoener 1974 ) and Analysis of Similarities ( ANOSIM ) ( Clarke et al 2005 ) . Nowadays fish trophic interactions and foodweb constructions are frequently studied jointly with aid of Gut Content Analysis ( GCA ) and Stable Isotopes Analysis.
3.2.1 Use of Gut Content Analysis and Stable Isotope Analysis to analyze trophic interactions in Fishes
Gut content analysis ( GCA ) is a primary tool for quantifying the diet and can specify diet alterations on monthly and seasonal degree to give better image of trophic interactions. It is a utile tool to understand fish eating ecology and is considered to be a standard pattern for naming fish trophic relationships. It has appeared to be the most dependable method in order to obtain seasonal fluctuation in trophic interactions ( Pasquaud et al. , 2007 ) . GCA over long periods of clip can give penetrations into temporal tendencies in feeding forms that may non be apparent in other techniques. Accurate quantitative analysis of trophic interaction can be helpful to reply many of import inquiries in ecology including kineticss of nutrient webs, development and direction of resources and appraisal of human activities impact on ecosystem ( Gorokhova & A ; Lehtiniemi 2007 ) . However there are many disadvantages of GCA because it provides merely snapshot of the diet over yearss or months depending upon type of nutrient, and temperature. Besides, it is some clip really hard to place some soft and quickly digesting points in quarry. For animate beings that macerate their nutrient in intestine holding feed in signifier of fluid, it is hard to place the points without molecular designation techniques at DNA degree ( Harper et al. 2005 ) .
Stable Isotope Analysis are helpful to analyze nutrient webs when tummy contents are hard to place or when there is uncertainness sing the assimilation efficiency of assorted nutrient points. Many ecologists have now realized the power of SIA, particularly when used to complement more conventional techniques ( Grey, 2006 ) . Stable isotope ratio in proteins of consumers really reflects stable isotope ratio in the diet proteins in a predictable mode ( Hobson, 1999 ) . ?15N by and large shows a stepwise enrichment at each trophic degree and as a consequence the ?15N values in the tissues of consumers tend to be between 2·5‰ to 4‰ greater than those of their diets ( Bearhop et al. , 2002 ; Vander Zanden and Rasmussen, 2001 ) . Therefore ?15 N can supply estimations of trophic place of the animate being. The ratio of ?13C besides shows additions with trophic degree, but to lesser extent than ?15N, in the order of 1‰ ( DeNiro & A ; Epstein, 1978 ; Peterson & A ; Fry, 1987 ; Vander Zanden and Rasmussen, 2001 ) . So ?13C ratio reflects diet composing and can be used to find ultimate beginnings of dietetic C ( Post, 2002 ; Borderelle et al. , 2009 ) . This bit-by-bit consistent alteration could be helpful to quantify comparative trophic place, which can besides be correlated with dietetic alterations in fish ( Cabana & A ; Rasmussen, 1994 ) . ?15N and ?13C in musculus tissues reflects nutrient consumed during the spring and summer growing period ( Perga & A ; Gerdeaux, 2005 ) . Because of such qualities, Stable Isotope Analysis is a powerful tool to analyze diet composing.
It is a common pattern by the nutrient ecologists to show ?13C-?15N bi-plots with species, persons or populations plotted based on their mean stable isotope values. Relative place of species in this bi-plot could be used to garner the facets of nutrient web construction. However, it is really hard to acquire the complete construction of nutrient web by using merely one technique. A assortment of methods has been developed by ecologists to analyze informations from SIA. The information from SIA can be used to cipher trophic places ( Vander Zanden et al. , 1997 ; Post, 2002 ; Layman et al. , 2005 ; Rybczynski et al. , 2008 ; ) relative part of quarry to consumers, ( Vander Zanden & A ; Vadeboncoeur, 2002 ; Phillips and Greg, 2003 ; Clarke et al. , 2005 ) , niche displacements ( Post, 2003 ) intraspecific diet variableness ( Dufour et al. , 1998 ; Bolnick et al. , 2003 ; Bearhop et al. , 2004 ; Matthews & A ; Mazumder, 2004 ; Duponchelle et al. , 2005 ) and communitywide trophic construction ( Layman et al. , 2007 ) .
As stable isotope ratios in an being ‘s tissues are ensuing from all trophic tracts stoping in that person, they can besides be used as a mean to portray the trophic niche. There are advantages of natural fluctuations in stable isotopes ratios as they reflect the implicit in facets of species trophic niche ( Layman et al. , 2007 ) . Some surveies have discovered that fluctuation associated with the average isotopic signature combined with GCA can be used to mensurate dietetic niche breadth ( Bearhop et al. , 2004 ) . Both GCA and SIA have some advantages and disadvantages that make them complementary for word picture of nutrient web, trophic interactions and reading of informations ( Parkyn et al. , 2001, Davenport & A ; Bax, 2002 ; Jardine et al. , 2003 ; Grey et al. , 2002 ; Rybczynski et al. , 2008 ; Perga & A ; Gerdeaux, 2005 ; Duponchelle, 2005 ) . Ecologist has recommended that while analyzing nutrient webs, whenever possible ; SIA should be combined with GCA ( Whitledge and Rabeni, 1997 ; Beaudoin et al. , 1999 ; Johannsson et al. , 2001 ; Grey et al. , 2002 ; Renones et al. , 2002 ; Christensen and Moore 2009 ) .
3.1.3 Context of Study
Lake Annecy, although an oligotrophic lake, has a figure of possible nutrient resources for the fish that occupy both littoral and oceanic home grounds ; including benthal invertebrates, zooplankton, macrophytes and prey fish. . The species composing and trophic position of Lake Annecy nutrient web has non changed during last 10 old ages. However there are non additive fluctuations in the biomass of its different constituents both particularly in zooplankton ( Gerdeaux et al. , 2009 ) and in fish gimmicks particularly of whitefish and Arctic char during last few old ages ( Gerdeaux, 2007 ) . Changes in the biomass proportions of nutrient web constituents can do alterations in trophic interaction and may consequences in alterations in diet of fish community. Fisheries direction in Lake Annecy is focused on salmonids. Whitefish population is maintained by natural genteelness while Arctic char and trout are stocked yearly which is a dearly-won pattern. Fisheries direction at Lake Annecy want to place that how the resources are partitioned within the ecosystem, what is the possible for competition among salmonids, and how much expressway and perch have influence on lower trophic degrees through predation. Previous surveies have used the GCA ( Gerdeaux et al. 2002 ) to set up forms of nutrient web construction in Lake Annecy but the decisions from that survey were non really utile for the direction. We present the usage of both SIA and GCA to better the apprehension of the nutrient web and suggest some decisions for the piscary direction. We used an extended study during 10 old ages on isotopic analysis of nutrient web constituents and seasonal GCA during 2008 and compare it with earlier work ( Gerdeaux et al. 2002 ) to analyze the nutrient web construction, dietetic niches and convergences among of import fish species in Lake Annecy. We evaluate the consequences obtained by GCA by utilizing SIA and MixSIR blending theoretical account to understand how the two different methods are utile to understand the trophic ecology of Lake Annecy and better the piscary direction.
3.1.3 Studies done
Fish were sampled largely from commercial piscaries. For GCA, an effort was made to roll up samples during all the months of angling season from February to October. The volume of each type of quarry was assessed in the intestine contents ( Hyslop, 1980 ) . The diet convergence between different species was calculated on seasonal footing utilizing the Schoener Index ( Schoener, 1974 ) . One-way pairwise analysis of similarity ( ANOSIM ) , based on the Bray-Curtis similarity matrix, was used to prove for interspecies differences at P & lt ; 0.001 between fish diets. To illustrated diet overlap non-metric multi-dimensional grading ( MDS ) based upon a Bray-Curtis similarity matrix was used. Similarity percentages ( SIMPER ) were used to place the dietetic classs which contributed most to any differences between the seasonal diets of the assorted species by uniting the diet points into four classs. 465 grownup fish samples, 29 juvenile fish samples, 77 samples of zooplankton, and 263 samples of benthic division between 1998-2008 were used for SIA in present survey. Samples for SIA were collected largely during the fall season so that they represent the diet during the summer growing months. Samples of YoY of perch, roach, benthal invertebrates that were eaten by fish and bulk zooplankton were besides collected for SIA. Analysiss were done utilizing Europa Scientific ANCA-NT 20-20 with a NCA-NT Solid/Liquid readying faculty. Consequences are reported as ? values, and ‰ divergences from criterions ( atmospheric N or Pee Dee Belemnite C ) , utilizing
?15 N or ?13C = [ ( RSAMPLE – RSTANDARD ) / RSTANDARD ] ten 1000
The MixSIR commixture theoretical account ( Moore & A ; Semmens, 2008 ) uses a Bayesian attack used to cipher the part of different beginnings to the isotope values of marauders utilizing fractional process values of 2.3 ± 1.61 for ?15 N and 0.4 ± 1.20 for ?13C for aquatic beings ( McCutchan et al. , 2003 ) .
The R-statistic values in the pairwise comparings in the ANOSIM and Schoener Index concluded that the diet of whitefish was statistically different from that of the Arctic char except in spring and from that of perch, except in the winter. The same was true for Arctic char and perch, with a higher Schoener index during winter and spring, and a lower one during summer the chief eating seasons. MDS ordination of the seasonal volumetric informations for the dietetic samples of four species besides demonstrated the seasonal points of most of the species discrete from each other. Average values of ?15N were somewhat lower for expressway and perch than for north-polar char and whitefish. Inter-specifically whitefish and Arctic char ?15N values were statistically the same but ?13C values were mostly different. Perch and expressway ?15N and ?13C isotopic values were besides different statistically but to a lesser extent. The ?15N- ?13C bi-plot besides shows that the average values of ?13C of different fish species were normally distinguishable during the 10 old ages. Bulk zooplankton isotope signatures showed seasonal fluctuations for all the old ages investigated. Considerable fluctuations were found in chironomid isotope signatures for both the littoral and profundal zones even at the same deepness. The blending theoretical account identified zooplankton as the chief quarry point for both whitefish and Arctic char in 2008 and YoY perch was of import diet constituent of both Arctic char and perch.
3.2.1- Importance of Lake Trophic Network Analysis
The piscaries direction is traveling off from individual species direction and towards an ecosystem based attack ( Dame & A ; Christian, 2006 ) . For proper sustainable ecosystem direction, cognition of species interrelatednesss within an ecosystem is prerequisite. Therefore an apprehension of trophic construction is really indispensable for ecological surveies and fishery appraisal and direction. The measuring of energy and stuff flows between the assorted ecosystem constituents provides important penetration into the cardinal construction and map of the system ( Ulanowicz, 1986 ) . Trophic web analyses really estimates the constituents within a nutrient web utilizing input/output, trophic and rhythm analysis to measure the ecosystem belongingss. Direct and indirect trophic effects for each constituent in the web are quantified and the full dependence of one compartment relation to all other compartments can be determined. Trophic web analysis can besides be used to quantify the wellness, unity and adulthood of ecosystems ( Christensen & A ; Pauly, 1998 ) and it besides helps to measure the magnitude of emphasis imposed on an ecosystem ( Mageau et al. 1998 ) . Such complex interactions constituents of ecosystems can be integrated really good utilizing ecological theoretical accounts. Research attempts utilizing trophic web analyses in ecology have produced methodological, theoretical and empirical progresss and development of package bundles of different theoretical accounts for ecological trophic analysis. One of the of import package that has been developed to execute ecological web analysis is Ecopath with Ecosim EwE ( Christensen et al 2008 ) . EwE is a mass balance theoretical account which provides an first-class agencies of analyzing the behaviour of an aquatic ecosystem.
3.2.2- Ecosystem Based Fisheries Management
Ecosystem-based piscary direction ( EBFM ) is a new way for piscary direction, with focal point on ecosystem as a precedence instead than the mark species. The overall aim of EBFM is a sustainable and healthy ecosystem to back up the piscaries. Single species piscaries direction focuses normally on maximising the gimmick of a individual mark species and frequently ignores home grounds, marauders, and quarry of the mark species and other ecosystem constituents and their interactions. On other manus EBFM attack takes into history all the interactions of mark species with other constituents of ecosystem including marauders, rivals, quarry complex interactions between fishes and their home ground ; and the effects of angling on fish stocks. The traditional single-species attack of piscaries direction is easy to utilize and can be helpful to supply some direction determinations, but this attack may non be sufficient. On the other manus, the EBFM can be really complicated taking into history all the parametric quantities, and consequences could be really unpredictable. Normally, the first attack in EBFM is to develop a conceptual theoretical account that can set the piscaries in the model of ecosystem cognition and theory. It is really hard to garner all the informations require for a comprehensive EBFM but a preliminary theoretical account can be helpful for effectual single-species direction of mark species with the add-on of precautional steps for unknown or lesser known ecosystem constituents.
3.2.3 Ecopath with Ecosim Approach
The Ecopath attack was initiated in early 1980 ‘s by Polovina ( Polovina, 1984 ) and after series of development during 1990 ‘s took the form of an integrated package bundle called as Ecopath with Ecosim, EwE ( Christensen and Walters 2004 ) . The Ecopath Model ( EwE ) uses aggregate balance rules to gauge flows and analyze the ecosystem ‘s dynamic. The description of province of an ecosystem helps to depict the alterations in biomass and trophic interactions in clip and infinite. Application of Ecopath theoretical account helps ecologists to better understand the significance of these relationships in the overall ecosystem context. Ecopath provides an estimation of biomasses, trophic flows, and mortality rates for some mention twelvemonth or multi-year averaging window. Ecopath theoretical accounts describe the construction and features of a system ‘s nutrient web and to supply a model and synthesis for larning about whole communities and their several parts. On the footing of handiness of informations and significance of the species the nutrient web can be divided into functional groups of ecologically similar species, but may besides includes single species or life-stages of single species which are connected by affair flux. Data on biomass, ingestion, ecotrophic efficiency, quantitative diet composing of these groups and gimmicks estimations are required as input for Ecopath theoretical account. Ecopath theoretical account contains tools to separating the comparative authority of the assorted forces determining construction of the communities. There are many holistic indexs that integrate the ecosystem procedure and can be utile in quantification of ecosystem province and adulthood and development. Such indexs can be used to measure non merely the impact of human activities but besides climate alteration on the ecosystem by analyzing the ensuing alterations in development and province of adulthood of an ecosystem and to develop direction policies for the hereafter. Ecopath theoretical accounts, really represents the nutrient web of a given ecosystem at a given clip but can be used to compare different clip periods by building different theoretical accounts and comparing their properties ( Heymans et al. , 2004 ) . Ecopath parameterization is based on an premise of mass balance attack over a given clip period. Ecopath theoretical account is based on two basic equations
The entire production rate Pi for each group I can be
Pi = Yi +M2i ? Bi + Ei + BAi +M0i ? Bi
where Yi is the entire rate of I, M2i is the instantaneous predation rate for group I, Ei the net migration rate ( out-migration ? in-migration ) , Bai is the biomass accretion rate for I, while M0i is the ‘other mortality ‘ rate for i. Pi is calculated as the merchandise of Bi, the biomass of I and ( P/B ) I, the production/biomass ratio for I.
The 2nd maestro equation of Ecopath theoretical account is
Consumption = production + respiration +unassimilated nutrient
Ecoranger, is a re-sampling modus operandi in Ecopath package to integrate the input chance distributions of the biomasses, ingestion and production rates, ecotrophic efficiencies, gimmick rates, and diet composings utilizing Monty Carlo attack ( Christensen and Walters 2004 ) . The ecosystem stableness can besides be predicted, harmonizing to Odum ‘s theory of ecosystem development. Many web analysis indices are besides produced by Ecopath, which are utile to find the ecosystem ‘s construction, adulthood, and stableness under present and future scenarios. Using web analysis, the ecosystem web can be mapped into a additive nutrient concatenation, and energy transportation efficiency can be predicted for assorted tropic degrees. A simple future simulation of piscaries scenario can be performed by maintaining fishing mortality rate either changeless or increasing or diminishing it utilizing Ecosim attack in EwE. Ecosim can supply a footing for researching the ecosystem effects of future direction options utilizing clip series informations.
126.96.36.199- Context of Study
Ecopath patterning though really popular to analyze Marine and coastal ecosystems ; lesser plants have been reported for usage of Ecopath in lakes ecosystem patterning every bit compared to marine or coastal countries. It has been used to analyze the fresh water ecosystems but largely in tropical lakes and reservoirs. It has ne’er been used before in for Arctic, Alpine or sub alpine lake. In France, there is merely one study of usage of Ecopath for lake ecosystem patterning ( Reyes-Marchant et Al. 1993 ) The chief intent of present survey is an effort for the first clip, to do a steady province theoretical account of trophic interactions in Lake Annecy qualifying nutrient web interactions between different functional groups and analysing the energy flow using present available informations from last decennary by utilizing Ecopath with Ecosim ( EwE ) with particular accent on fish community. The principle behind this survey is to show a tool to understand the interactions between assorted constituents and for rating and direction of Lake Annecy ecosystem particularly from piscaries prospective.
188.8.131.52 – Work done
The different functional groups used for Ecopath mold of Lake Annecy include of import fish species ; common whitefish, Arctic char, lake trout, expressway, perch, eelpout, Tinca tinca and roach. All other minor fishes were grouped as Cyprinids. Other of import groups used for patterning included zoobenthos, zooplankton, phytoplankton and macrophytes. Fishing was divided into two fleets, recreational and commercial. An initial theoretical account was made utilizing average informations from 1998 to 2005. Another theoretical account was prepared utilizing fresh available informations in 2008 particularly recent work on fish diet and compared with old theoretical account. Datas obtained from commercial and recreational piscaries supervising in Lake Annecy and average temperature was used to gauge comparative biomass, P/B ratio and Q/B utilizing Von Bertalanffy Growth Function ( VBGF ) parametric quantities and assorted empirical relationships ( Pauly 1980, Palomares and Pauly 1989,1998, Froese and Binohlan 2000 ) . Diet matrixes were estimated utilizing Gerdeaux et Al. ( 2002 ) , Janjua and Gerdeaux ( unpublished ) other published literature from the part. Biomass, P/B ratio and Q/B ratio of other functional groups was computed from other plants on Lake Annecy, empirical equations ( Brey 1999 ) and informations from literature. Mass balance modus operandi in Ecopath package was used to equilibrate the theoretical account and Ecoranger routine in EwE was used to stipulate chance distributions for the input variables.
Ecological analysis integrated in EwE were used to analyze different indexs which describe trophic flows, transportation efficiencies, adulthood of the ecosystem, piscaries stableness and analyse the belongingss of the lake ‘s ecosystem. There was non much difference between the ecological parametric quantities of 1998-2005 and 2008 theoretical account. Assorted Trophic Impact Analysis ( MTI ) was used to analyze the impact of direct and indirect interactions. The basic input/output parametric quantities for 2008 theoretical account are given in Table? ? . The EE of most of the commercial fish species in Lake Annecy was less than 0.5. Gross efficiency was lower for cyprinids and roach because of the low quality of their preferable quarry, macrophytes. The system statistics of Lake Annecy ‘s ecosystem in 1998-2005 and 2008 are given in Table? ? . and diagram presenting flows between different constituents is in figure? ? . Trophic construction analysis showed that most of the biomass and flows were confined to trophic degrees I and II. The trophic transportation efficiency was higher at TL III. The mean trophic transportation degree of the Lake Annecy system was 9.5 % -11 % . In Lake Annecy, the entire flow originated from debris was about 50 % . The comparative value of dominance was 29.7 to 30.2, which is low with comparatively high operating expense. Most of the fish production was confined to TL III as were the gimmicks and more than 80 % of the fish gimmick were aslo confined to trophic degree 3. The highest primary production demand for sustainable gimmick was estimated highest for expressway followed by the whitefish. The MTI showed the positive impact of zoobenthos on most of the fishes, except whitefish. Phytoplankton, zooplankton and debris besides had a positive impact on most of the consumer fish groups. Both commercial and recreational piscaries show a assorted type of impact. Commercial piscaries show a negative impact on most of the commercially and recreationally of import fish groups, except Arctic char for which it is a small positive. Zoobenthos were besides found to be keystone species ( 0.066 ) . The anchor functional groups have keystoneness proposed index near to or greater than zero. Recreational piscaries ‘ impact was negative on whitefish, Arctic char and expressway. Both types of piscaries show a positive impact on carps, which are non commercially of import in Lake Annecy. The gross efficiency of the piscary was 0.0011 and mean trophic degree of fish gimmick was from 3.17 to 3.29. The per centum of Primary Production Required ( PPR ) to back up piscaries in Lake Annecy was 11.15 % ( 2008 ) to 14.98 % ( 98-05 ) of entire primary production.
Unit of measurements
Sum of all ingestion
Sum of all exports
Sum of all respiratory flows
Sum of all flows into debris
Entire system throughput
Sum of all production
Average trophic degree of the gimmick
Gross efficiency ( catch/net p.p. )
Deliberate entire net primary production
Entire primary production/total respiration
Net system production
Entire primary production/total biomass
Entire biomass/total throughput
Entire biomass ( excepting debris )
System Omnivory Index
4- Surveies on Fish Growth
4.1 Importance of fish age and growing in piscaries direction
Age and growing are the footings normally used together in piscaries biological science. However these footings have the different significances. Harmonizing to DeVries and Frie ( 1996 ) : “Age refers to some quantitative description of the length of clip that an being has lived, whereas growing is the alteration in organic structure or organic structure portion size between two points in clip, and growing rate is a step of alteration in some metric of fish size as a map of time.” Both age and length informations is used to depict the growing of the fish. The survey of growing means fundamentally the finding of the organic structure size as a map of age. Fish growing informations is really of import to measure the piscaries position of a species and how that species could react to the developments. Such informations can be used for developing piscaries direction programs. Reliable estimations of fish age and growing are rudimentss to understand the kineticss of fish population ( Walters and Martell 2004 ) . This information provides basic penetration into the biological science of concerned species and basic information for its stock direction.
The rate at which a fish grows is direct map of the sum of energy consumed as provender and the efficiency with which it is used ( Baker et Al. 1993 ) . Growth of the fish can be described by the equation.
Growth = degree Fahrenheit [ ( nutrient consumption ) ( fraction digested ) – metamorphosis – nutrient aggregation – reproduction ) ]
All the constituents in the growing equation are influenced by environmental factors in one manner or another and which in bend, act upon the growing rate of fish. Understanding of the effects of biotic and abiotic factors on fish growing is really of import both from commercial and scientific point of position ( Thomas and Eckmann 2007 ) . Water temperature and lake trophic position are the most of import abiotic factors while handiness of nutrient is the most of import biotic factor. Food is non merely of import in term of biomass of quarry but besides the biomass of the marauders viing for the same quarry. Growth besides depends on the quality or type of nutrient available because it affects the energy available for the growing. Preies with fewer densenesss are normally hard to happen and ensue in lower growing efficiencies. Water temperature influences the fish growing straight by act uponing the rate and efficiency of digestion and indirectly by the handiness of the nutrient.
The ability to execute age findings based on the scrutiny of difficult anatomical parts is of cardinal importance in piscaries research. Precise and accurate age information is the key to obtaining quality estimations of growing and other critical rates such as natural mortality and length of service, and is indispensable for successful piscaries direction.
Consecutive patterned advance of manners in length frequence informations can besides be used to explain the size and age composing of fish population. Such patterned advance of manners are corresponds to age categories ( Ricker 1975 ; Pauly and Morgan 1987 ) . This attack can be used when it is non possible to happen the age of single fish and requires that the age categories should be distinguishable plenty to be identifies in length frequence. However, fish age categories overlap when fish become older and its growing becomes asymptotic. Another method is the marker of fish with internal or external tickets or Markss. However this pattern can be dearly-won and clip consuming.
The acquisition of fish age and growing informations from the analysis of calcified constructions such as graduated tables or otolits is the most popular method and the nucleus of fish stock appraisal. Many different methods can be used for age finding in fish which involves numbering the growing zones that are formed at intervals in difficult constructions of fish including graduated tables, otoliths, vertebra and spinal columns.
Scales of fishes are singular constructions. Much information can be obtained about the growing history and length of service of single fish by close scrutiny of their graduated tables or other bony constructions. The back-calculation technique is utile for finding more exactly a fish ‘s growing during each twelvemonth of life prior to the sampling day of the month. The consequences might uncover, for illustration, that a fish which is of mean size for its age now, grew fast in certain earlier old ages and decelerate in other old ages.
4.2 Growth of Whitefish in Lake Annecy
Whitefish was 1st introduced in Lake Annecy in 1888 ( Le Roux 1908 ) . The last stocking of whitefish was done in 1978. Since so the population of whitefish in Lake Annecy is maintained of course ( Gerdeaux 1988 ) . The chief purpose of whitefish direction in Lake Annecy is to portion the resources every bit between the anglers and the commercial fishermen. In 1988, the figure of fishermen were 5 and since 1998, they are 4 merely. At present, there are more than 1000 anglers. Before 1974, minimal legal size of whitefish gimmick was 23 centimeter which was increased to 26 centimeter in 1960, s sing whitefish as salmonids. After the 1st research on whitefish piscaries by Wieniawski ( 1972 ) , legal size was increased to 40 centimeter. Since so, Lake Annecy piscaries is under uninterrupted monitoring and legal size for whitefish is 38 centimeter since 1994. However commercial fisherman normally catch fish with average size of 42 centimeters utilizing 54 mm gillnets. So normally commercial fishermen catch whitefish after its1st reproduction. From 1955 to 1970s, gimmicks of whitefish weight steadily decreased from 40 dozenss to less than 5 dozenss. Catchs remained below 5 dozenss from 1966 to 1982.In From 1982, after lessening in mesh size from 65 millimeters 52 millimeter, the gimmicks started increasing and went upto 33 dozenss and 36 dozenss in 1990 and 1999 severally. Despite of fluctuation in commercial and recreational portions and entire whitefish gimmicks whitefish outputs are remained mostly unchanged since the 1990s. Since 2000, the mean whitefish gimmick per twelvemonth is about 20 dozenss of which 38 % goes to recreational piscaries and 62 % goes to commercial piscaries. The piscary is closed during the genteelness season for whitefish, Internet Explorer, the 2nd weekend of October to last weekend of January.Reproduction takes topographic point in December, and engendering in Lake Annecy occurs in shallow countries ( Cretenoy, 1996 ) .
4.2.1 Context of survey
The common whitefish ( Coregonus lavaretus ) is the most of import and popular fish species in cardinal European lakes ( Gerdeaux 2004 ) of import both for commercial and recreational intent. There was rather disconnected addition in whitefish growing in European lakes during 1960-1970 because of eutrophication ( Numann 1972 ) . However, during 1980 ‘s protective steps were under taken to command the effects of anthropogenetic activities in the lakes and that consequences in reoligotrophication and as a consequence lessening in growing of whitefish ( Muller and Mbwenembo Bia 1998, Eckmann et Al. 2007 ) . Therefore lake trophic position is one of the most of import factors that can impact the whitefish growing by conveying in alterations in primary and secondary production ( Toss offing et al. 1990 ) . Commercial piscaries can besides do evolutionary alterations in the life history eg size at age or age at adulthood by size selective harvest home. ( Sinclair et al. 2002: Conover and Munch 2002 ) . Though the Lake Annecy ne’er became eutrophic during last century, still there was uninterrupted lessening in phosphorus degree and zooplankton biomass. Whitefish is preponderantly zooplanktonivore and adult fish provender majorly on Daphnia ( Gerdeaux et al 2002 ) . Despite of fluctuation in zooplankton biomass in Lake Annecy, the whitefish output was non changed much since 1990. Whitefish output is shared about every bit between the anglers and four commercial fishermen and it is one of the chief ends of piscaries direction in Lake Annecy. However, during the last few old ages, despite of holding about changeless CPUE, this ratio is acquiring disturbed, making the inquiry for the direction about the population of whitefish. So it is of import to analyze the growing form of w