First of all I will discuss the

First
of all I will discuss the definitions of Cross-culture and psychology and then
I will discuss the topic of mine as a whole.

Cross-cultural

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 Dealing with
or offering comparison between two or more different cultures or cultural areas
is called Cross-cultural.

Psychology

The scientific study
of the human mind and its functions, especially those affecting behaviors in a
given context is called Psychology.

Cross-cultural Psychology

 “The
scientific study of human behavior and its transmission, taking into account
the ways in which behaviors are shaped and influenced by social and cultural
forces”

Or it is defined as:
Cross-cultural psychology is a branch of psychology that
looks at how cultural factors influence human behavior. 

Explanation

While many aspects of human thought and
behavior are universal, cultural differences can lead to often surprising
differences in how people think, feel, and act. Some cultures, for example,
might stress individualism and the importance of personal autonomy.

 Other
cultures, however, may place a higher value on collectivism and cooperation
among members of the group.

                 

                                                                

 

Such differences can play a powerful role in many
aspects of life. 

Cross-cultural
psychology is also emerging as an increasingly important topic as researchers
strive to understand both the differences and similarities among people of
various cultures throughout the world. The International Association of Cross-Cultural
Psychology (IACCP) was established in 1972, and this branch of psychology has
continued to grow and develop since that time. Today, increasing numbers of
psychologists investigate how behavior differs among various cultures
throughout the world.

Theoretical
Debates: Culture as internal
or external

It
is about to what extent a culture be conceptualized as a part of person and to
what extent as a set of conditions outside of the person?

Culture as Internal

It
includes:

·       
Beliefs

·       
Ideas

·       
Philosophies

·       
Attitudes

Culture as External

·       
Mode
of subsistence (poverty and affluence)

·       
The
political organization of society

·       
The
ecological and social context (institutions and practices)

·       
Formal
education

·       
Climate

·       
Economic
practices

·       
Contact
with new society such as migrants

Relativism-Universalism

It
is about to what extent are psychological functions and processes common to
humankind and to what extent are they unique to specific cultural grous.

Generalisations: Culture as a system

Modal personality (national
characters): the dominant features of the typical person belonging to a cultural
group or set of personality traits frequently found in a society.

Cultural Dimensions

Organization of
Cultural Differences: cultural differences form patterns that allow for broad
categorizations or are the observed differences unrelated.

Individualism-Collectivism

It
is about our psyche and also about our society that some wants to work
individually and some to work collectively because in some societies and in
person’s minds that work collectively is strength and individually it will be
loss. Others think working collectively is wastage of time and individually it
is the usage of his own mind and can work better.

What Exactly Is
Culture?

Culture
refers to many characteristics of a group of people, including attitudes,
behaviors, customs, and values that are transmitted from one generation to the
next. Cultures throughout the world share many similarities, but are marked by
considerable differences.

For Example:

While
people of all cultures experiences happiness, how this feeling is expressed
varies from one culture to the next.

 

 

Goals

The
goal of cross-cultural psychologists is to look at both universal behaviors and
unique behaviors to identify the ways in which culture impacts our behavior,
family life, education, social experiences, and other areas.

Focus of
Cross-cultural Psychologists

Many cross-cultural psychologists choose to focus on one of two
approaches:

The
etic approach focuses
on studying how different cultures are similar.
The
emic approach focuses
on studying the differences between cultures.

Cross-cultural psychologists also study something known as
ethnocentrism.

Ethnocentrism refers to a tendency to use your own culture as the
standard by which to judge and evaluate other cultures.

In other words, taking an ethnocentric point of view means using
your understanding of your own culture to gauge what is “normal.”
This can lead to biases and a tendency to view cultural differences as abnormal
or in a negative light. It can also make it difficult to see how your own
cultural background influences your behaviors.

Cross-cultural psychologists often look at how ethnocentrism
influences our behaviors and thoughts, including how we interact with
individuals from other cultures. Psychologists are also concerned with how
ethnocentrism can influence the research process. For example, a study might be
criticized for having an ethnocentric bias.

Human Behaviors

There
are two types of behaviors and these are as:

·       
Overt behavior: Observable actions
and responses.

·       
Covert behavior: Thoughts, beliefs,
meanigs.

Most
researchers studying behaviors across cultures argue that differences in
behavior should be seen as culturally shaped reflections of common
psychological processes. So, from this we will note that the psychology which
is basically human behaviors, thoughts and beliefs is very closely related to
cross cultural.

Major topics in
Cross-cultural Psychology

The
major topics in Cross-cultural Psychology are very important. Without them, we
will never study this topic and these are as:

·       
Emotions

·       
Language
acquisition

·       
Child
development

·       
Personality

·       
Social
behavior

·       
Family
and social relations

To
study this, there is also another invention of branch and that is Community Psychology. Here is a brief
summary because this is the important if we want to study Cross cultural
Psychology.

Community
Psychology and Society

Community
Psychology is
a specialty area concerned with how individuals relate to society. Have you
ever wondered how people can become more active contributors in their
communities? Or do you ever think about how community issues can impact the
health and wellness of individuals? These are both major topics of interest
within the field of community psychology.

This is a fairly broad and far-reaching subject within
psychology, synthesizing elements from other disciplines including sociology,
political science, public health, cross-cultural
psychology and social
psychology.

Psychologists working in this field look at the cultural,
economic, social, political and environmental that shape and influence the
lives of people all over the globe.

The focus of community psychology can be both applied and
theoretical, but it is oftentimes a mixture of both. While some community
psychologists conduct research on theoretical issues, others take this information
and put it into immediate use to identify problems and develop solutions within
communities.

History of Community Psychology

Community psychology began to emerge during the 1960s as a
growing group of psychologists became dissatisfied with the
ability of clinical psychology to address broader social issues. Today, many recognize a
1965 meeting of
psychologists at the Swampscott Conference as the official beginning of
contemporary community psychology. At this meeting, those in attendance
concluded that psychology needed to take a greater focus on community and
social change in order to address mental health and
well-being.

Since that time, the field has continued to grow. Division 27 of
the American
Psychological Association, Society for Community Research and Action (SCRA), is devoted
to the subject of community psychology. Several academic journals are also
devoted to the topic, including the American Journal of Community
Psychology, the Journal of Community Psychology and
the Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology.

Community Psychology at Work

Some things that a community psychologist might do include:

Finding
ways to help disadvantaged or disenfranchised individuals feel more
connected with their local communities
Understanding
social issues among minority groups
Developing,
implementing and evaluating action-oriented community-based programs
Building
relationships between individuals and community groups
Evaluate
organizations, governments, and communities in order to promote
participation and diversity
Community
psychologists can be employed in a number of areas including education,
government, nonprofit groups, community organizations and private
consulting. Within the educational system, community psychologists often
work at colleges and universities to teach courses and conduct original
research. In a government setting, they may work in health and human services for local, state
and federal governments.

Community Psychology and Related Fields

People sometimes confuse community psychology with related
fields such as social work, cross-cultural
psychology, and social psychology. While community psychology has many
similarities to related fields and often draws upon these disciplines, it is
important to note some major distinctions.

For example, community psychology is centered on action and solving
problemsmuch like clinical psychology. However, clinical
psychology tends to have a greater focus on solving individual
problems, while community psychology is devoted to understanding the underlying
social issues that contribute to these problems.

Community psychology also takes a holistic, systems-based
approach to understanding
behavior and how people fit into society, much like related fields
such as sociology and social
psychology. Community psychology tends to be more centered on applying
psychological and social knowledge to solving problems, creating real-world
solutions and taking immediate action.

Like public health and mental health counseling, community
psychology is also focused on the prevention of problems and the promotion of
health and well-being. It also has a very strong research-oriented component.
Community psychologists often perform original research, develop theoretical
frameworks and then apply this knowledge directly within public and private
communities.

As you can see, community psychology overlaps with a number of
other disciplines. However, it has its own unique and important contributions
to make. The major goals of this
field are to create new ways to empower people within their communities,
promote social change and diversity, promote individual and community
well-being and prevent disorder.

Training and Educational Requirements

Most of  community psychologists hold at
least a master’s or doctorate degree in
psychology. There are some
community psychology programs available, but other students opt to earn an
interdisciplinary degree or a general degree with a focus on community
psychology topics.

Some of the coursework that an aspiring community psychologist
should take includes:

Social
behavior
Research
methods
Statistics
Public
health
Organizational
development
Grant
writing
Developing
prevention programs
Developmental
psychology
Sociology
Social
problems
Community
development

Training and education in community psychology focus on both
research and application. Graduate students receive extensive training in research
methods and social statistics, as well as how to put this
information to practical use through developing action-oriented community
programs.

 

Difference between
Cross cultural Psychology and General Psychology

Cross-Cultural psychology is the study of human
behavior and mental processes, while paying particular attention to an
individual’s diverse cultural conditions.

For Example:

Working of person individually or
collectively, if we discuss it with respect to the society and also to our
culture then this will be cross cultural psychology because we discuss the
cultural differences and human behaviors together as I discuss this above.

Typically, it is a branch of psychology that
looks as how cultural factors influence human behavior.

For Example:

If we study the psyche of person and
his/her behaviors and only his/her environment then this will be General
psychology.

How is Cross cultural Psychology is different
from others?

Since psychology emerged largely in Europe and North America,
researchers began to question whether many of the observations and ideas that
were once believed to be universal might apply to cultures outside of these
areas. Could our findings and assumptions about human psychology be biased based
upon the sample from which our observations are drawn?

Cross-cultural psychologists work to rectify many of the biases
that may exist in the research and determine if the things that apply in
European and North American cultures also apply in other parts of the world.

For example, consider
how something such as social cognition might
vary from and individualist culture such as the United States versus a
collectivist culture such as China.

Do people in China rely on the same social cues as people in the
U.S. do? What cultural differences might influence how people
perceive each other? These are just some of the questions that the cross-cultural
psychologists might explore.

 

Why Cross cultural
Psychology is important?

Since
psychology emerged largely in Europe and North America, researchers began to
question whether many of the observations and ideas that were once believed to
be universal might apply to cultures outside of these areas. Could our findings
and assumptions about human psychology be biased based upon the sample from
which our observations are drawn?

Cross-cultural psychologists work to rectify many of the biases
that may exist in the research and determine if the things that apply in
European and North American cultures also apply in other parts of the world.

For example, consider
how something such as social
cognition might vary from and individualist culture such as the
United States versus a collectivist culture such as China.

Do people in China rely on the same social cues as people in the
U.S. do?

What were the cultural differences might influence and how did
people perceive each other?

These are just some of the questions that the cross-cultural Psychologists
might explore.

Who should
study Cross cultural Psychology?

Cross-cultural psychology touches on a wide range of topics, so
students with an interest in other psychology topics may choose to also focus
on this area of psychology. The following are just a few who may benefit from
the study of cross-cultural psychology:

Students
interested in learning how child rearing practices in different cultures
impact development.
Teachers,
educators and curriculum designers who create multicultural education
lessons and materials can benefit from learning more about how cultural
differences impact student learning, achievement and motivation.
Students
interested in social or personality psychology can benefit from learning
about how culture impacts social behavior and individual personality.