Famous Austrian neurologist, Sigmund
Freud, was the founder of psychoanalysis and developed, “The Structure of
the Unconscious.” The human mind and the qualities of mental process are
divided into three separate parts: the conscious, unconscious and preconscious.
The division amid the three is neither complete nor definite. Consciousness, “the
state of being awake and aware of one’s surroundings,” is mental
(Dictionary.com). Psychology is responsible for recognizing the distinction, within
the study of consciousness, between “perceptions, feelings, intellective
processes and volitions” (Freud). There are physical processes that coexist
with the mental ones. According to Freud, there are many philosophers and
people who believe that the idea of a mental thing being unconscious is irreconcilable.
Mental processes can transform into consciousness are they can be replicated
and remembered. Freud explains that unconsciousness can turn into consciousness
and the latter is an extremely brief state.
created three concepts to explain the way the human mind works, the id, ego and
superego. The id is always present and controlled by the pleasure principle.
The id acts to fulfill basic needs, urges and desires and demands instant gratification.
Id is not aware of any values, good or evil. The part of the personality that
represents the mind’s conscious decision-making is the ego. Ego is ruled by the
reality principle and it attempts to spin the id’s urges into behaviour, which
assures a favourable outcome. Ego contrasts the id due to its inclination to
blend its components in order to generate a unified mental process. As well,
ego exists for reason and cautiousness while the id stands for impulse. The
superego is mainly unconscious and it is the ethical and moral guide by which
the ego functions. Id, ego and superego are three distinct components of human
personality although they are able to coalesce.
human psyche is fundamental to marketing and advertising in order to create and
sustain consumer society. The id and its pleasure principle influence many
purchasing decisions. As a result, most advertising to aimed to attract human
desire by promising pleasure and leisure. Creator of public relations and
nephew of Freud, Edward Bernays, examined his uncle’s ideas and applied them to
consumers. Bernays’ discovered that if the human psyche is controlled by desire
than the strongest way of persuading consumers to make purchases is by
appealing to their emotions. Bernays’ theory proved to be successful through
his attempt to persuade women to smoke. He was hired by Lucky Strike to help
expand their consumer base and attract the female market. Women saw cigarettes
as sign of male power and Bernays would tap into this sentiment. He was able to
take a simple product, the cigarette, and create this connotation of women
empowerment even though it gave women no actual strength. Bernays’ technique of
appealing to consumers’ psyche is still used in the 21st century. The
advertising and marketing of popular athletic brand, Nike, attracts the ego portion
of the human mind. The ego mediates between the id, temptation, and the
superego, morality. To influence the audience’s ego, the subject matter disseminated
to society needs to assist the consumer in positively define and establish
themselves to the world. Nike’s slogans and advertisements focus on increasing
the consumers’ ego. Nike situates itself as a brand for people who achieve
great things and they do not market their products as something you need to
succeed but rather the consumer uses it because they do succeed.