ESP but it can also be used

instructors as the final stage of ESP curriculum design need to design their
own assessment criteria and tests appropriate (Johns 14 & Price-Machado,
2001). Douglas (2000) mentions that test task and content should be real and
valid in order to represent tasks of the target situation. Therefore, the
analysis of the target language use situation is also important in designing
ESP tests. It is necessary to outline the key characteristics of ESP courses
before explaining the key points in curricular decisions of ESP courses in
order to identify common points about ESP in the literature, for example, its
being goal-oriented, having a learner-centered philosophy, and aiming to meet
contextspecific language requirements (Dudley Evans & St. John, 1998;
Robinson, 1991, cited in Dudley Evans & St. John; Strevens, 1988), the most
useful description of the characteristics of ESP in line with Dudley Evans
& St. John (1998) who distinguish between ESP’s absolute and variable
characteristics. The notion of ‘absolute’ here deals with the common features in
ESP a context which is the notion of ‘variable’ explains the situational
features of ESP contexts. They define these characteristics as follows: Absolute
characteristics are defined as ESP uses specific needs, methodology and
activities of disciplines; ESP has partial part on language such as grammar, skills,
discourse and genres suitable to these activities. However, variable
characteristics can be defined as ESP may be related to specific disciplines; ESP
also uses in specific teaching situations which has different methodology from general
English; ESP is designed for adult learners as well as learners at secondary
school level; ESP is not only designed for intermediate or advanced students,
but it can also be used with beginners. It can be concluded that ESP may be
more motivating than general English, using the time and effort of learners
with specific purposes efficiently, designing matched materials and
methodology, and also focusing on the language features that deal with the
learners’ needs in the target situation.

Research Method:

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Classroom Observation

(2013) mentioned that the term of observation is to describe a specific data
collection strategy that may be applied in some kinds of qualitative studies
(p.72). In addition, Fraenkel (2005) claimed that there are two types of
observations: participant and non-participant observation. The researchers
participate in the situation or setting that they are observing is called
participant observation. Moreover, when the researchers only sit on the sideline
without participating in the activity and they are not directly involved in the
situation is called in the non-participant observation.

this research, the researcher conducted classroom observation during an ESP
lesson. In the observation, the researcher observed the process of the teaching
and learning of ESP, conducted at the medical faculty of UMM for two times. Moreover,
the researcher sat on the sidelines and watched the activities in the classes. Due
to constraints in terms of time, distance and accessibility, the needs analysis
conducted in this study only obtained feedback from the students who are
academically involved with these ESP students at medical faculties of UMM.

English for Medical Purposes Questionnaires

this research, the researcher used English for Medical Purposes Questionnaire
in order to draw the types of English which are needed by medical students in
University of Muhammadiyah Malang and to get input as well as the improvement
to Language Center as the unit that takes it charge of English for Specific Purposes Program.

questionnaire was divided into 4 sections, they are: 1) Personal Background. 2)
General Information about English. 3) Language Skills. 4) Program Evaluation.
The detail information will be explained as follows.


this section, the researcher needs the respondents to fill their personal
information about their selves. Their identity was not disclosed to others and
the data was aggregated. It was only to have access to row data. It consists of
Name, Gender, First Language, Age, Previous School, Semester, Home town, and
the experience and reason to attend English courses.

Information about English

this section, the questions were based on the interest and the importance of
English. The questions were focused on reason why they learn English and the
importance of English. The respondents marked more than one answer from 11
prepared answers.


this section, the questions told about the language skills which were
important. These were to draw the priorities of the English skill needed by
Medical students. The respondents also marked to answer 3 questions. They
consisted of how important English for Medical purpose compare General English,
ranking English language skills in term of importance in future workplace, and
which area of English skills was important for related major as medical


this section, there were 2 questions focus on the English for Specific Purposes which were being held regarding the
effectiveness of the program. Those questions asked about reasons may help to
achieve the goals and how to evaluate the ESP course in general terms from 10
criteria given.


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