Embryonic stem cell is a medical approach which still ongoing research and has high possibility to cure plethora of diseases in human nowadays. However, there are unavoidable flaws might occur such as rejection from patient’s body. This is because the implementation of other’s embryonic cell into a patient’s body trigger the activation of immune system to recognize the cell as a foreign cell (joshi). Moreover, rejection rates for embryonic stem cell therapies are high as it is derived from non-patient body. Based on recent study, it is shown that development of tumor happened as a result of uncontrolled dividing process of embryonic stem cells (Vitanna, 2017). In addition to that, another research proves that utilization of embryonic stem cell for heart disease patient leads to narrower of coronary artery. In this situation, the condition of the patient becomes worsened and subsequently leaves negative impact on embryonic stem cell treatment (joshi). Despite of all the human embryonic stem cell might contribute for health care in the future, this therapy seems not preferable which makes it a mediocre approach and better approach is necessary to treat other ailments.
Legislation governing embryonic stem cells are diverse and varies in different country (National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL), 2016). According to The New Atlantis (2012), in Italy they imposed strict laws in regulating embryonic stem cells research based on Law 40 which came into effect on March 10, 2004 and the law stated that both embryos research and research on human embryos are banned including the usage of embryos in determining the embryonic cells lines. Italian law provides penal provision ranging from ten to twenty years for impermissible experimentation on embryos (The New Atlantis, 2012). NCSL (2016) reports that under South Dakota law enacted in 2000, it strictly prohibits research on embryos regardless of their source. Furthermore, according to South Dakota law (2016), annihilation of embryos to run non- therapeutic research is considered as a crime. Hence, the formation and existence of effective legislation concerning restriction on embryonic research demonstrates how harmful this experimentation could be.
According to NIH (2016), adult stem cells are functioning to cure various blood disorders such as leukemia, anemia, blood cancers and immune dysfunctions through bone marrow transplantation that acts as active agents for more than 40 years. Besides, there are 70 type of diseases that can be treated using adult stem cells and most medical therapies rely on this stem cell (Joshi et al., ). Advancement in adult stem cells research has introduced new type approach called “induced pluripotent stem cells ((iPSCs) (Patil). This kind of adult stem cells can be reprogrammed and in the meantime behave like embryonic stem cell as they perform the same roles (Patil). Through reprogramming of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSCs), any types of cell tissues can be generated (Vitanna, 2017).This include the involvement of reversing the differentiating cell signals to produced desired or specialized cells (JOSHI). Apart from that, Kirsten Riggan (2011) argues that direct cell reprogramming can be implemented in biomedical filed as it has higher percentage of success compare to human embryonic stem cell which is still at its infancy. As we can see, iPSCs are produced in ethical way without the destruction of human embryos compared to how embryonic stem cells derived from embryos. The use of iPSCs in stem cell research and medical applications can avoid technical challenges and the rise of controversies from society itself.
In a nutshell, human embryonic stem cells offer a better chance in treating malignancies diseases but inflict many issues in term of moral, funding and in establishment of law in the effectiveness of the clinical application in the future. Despite the continues arise of ethical questions regarding stem cell research particularly human embryonic stem cell, it is clear that the stem cell research is getting advance. Thus, all bodies including policy-makers, ethicists, and researchers must have the consideration to respect donor’s rights and give protection to those who involved in doing research. Adult stem cell is an alternative that can be implemented to replace human embryonic stem cells in medical field and we should focus more on this research to increase the effectiveness and efficiencies of the adult stem cell application in future.