Effect the provision of digestive enzymes; immune

Effect of the PiAstra benchtop flash-heating pasteurizer
on immune factors of donor Human Milk

Daniels, Penny Riemers, Tracy King, Stefan Schmidt and Anna Coutsoudis

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PiAstra is a simulated
flash heat (FH) pasteurization temperature monitoring system designed using Rasperry
Pi technology for the pasteurization of human milk. This study analysed the
effect of the PiAstra FH method on human milk immune components (immunoglobulin
A (IgA) and lactoferrin activity).  Donor
milk samples (N = 45) were obtained from a human
milk bank, and pasteurized. Concentrations of IgA and lactoferrin activity were
compared to their unpasteurized controls using the Student’s t-test. The PiAstra FH method retained 34.2 % of IgA (p 105 CFU/mL of microbial
growth 22.  None of the 45 PiAstra FH samples gave
rise to colonies after incubation, therefore these FH treated human milk samples
met the prescribed quality threshold of less than 10 CFU/mL 21.

The analysis of IgA and lactoferrin
in unpasteurized control samples and PiAstra FH samples demonstrated an
expected destruction of both immune factors (Table 1). The mean lactoferrin concentration
in control samples was 115.9 µg/mL, while the PiAstra samples showed a mean of
41.6 µg/mL, with retention of 40.4% (Figure 3A). Mean IgA concentrations in
control samples were 380.1 µg/mL and 139.3 µg/mL in PiAstra samples, with
retention of 34.2% (Figure 3B). 



There is a need for HMBs in low-income countries to
provide safe donor human milk using more cost-effective and low technology
methods, without compromising on the nutritional value of the pasteurized human
milk. Several studies have previously evaluated the impact of pasteurization on
human milk immune components. However, little research has focused on evaluating
flash heating. Holder pasteurization has been shown to reduce the function of
immunoreactive proteins such as IgA, lysozyme and lactoferrin by up to 80% 23, 24, 25, 26, 27,
28. Previous studies have found similar results with flash heating on IgA 28, 29 and  lactoferrin 15, 28. One flash heating study which showed a 66% IgA
retention 18 pasteurized 50 mL milk volumes and therefore may not
be comparable as the heating dynamics in such different volumes of milk may be
substantial. Our earlier testing the FoneAstra simulated flash heating system showed
25.2% and 38.6% retention of IgA and lactoferrin, respectively. In this study,
in addition to achieving the required microbiological quality threshold value


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