Educational a number of studies” (Collins, pg

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achievements determine future success and economical outcomes. In fact, race/ethnicity,
social class and gender outline the path of ones educational experience. Besides
that, socioeconomic status and household factors affect academic performance as
well. Both school and non-school factors make it clear that inequality and
educational achievement gaps exists in schools. Elements of schools to examine
is funding, tracking and grouping, as well as teacher quality become predominant
in institutional settings. While on the other hand, non-school factors include
poverty, community, family participation and environmental factors. It is evident
that these points are dependent on one another through which fuels the existence
of inequality and gaps in educational attainment.

The difference in academics among
students is from the consequence of policies set in place by a system that continues
to maintain and control the outcomes of specific groups. Race and ethnicity, school
environments and its curriculums are aspects to contemplate when it comes to educational
disparities among students. According to the article Social Reproduction in Classrooms and Schools by Collins “the basic
thesis that schooling as a system rations kinds of knowledge to class and
ethnically-stratified student populations has been empirically confirmed by a
number of studies” (Collins, pg 35) That is to say, curriculums in different
educational settings reflects in the results of the skills and work experiences
one will be able to possess. That is, academic practices are a platform for
social reproduction.

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In the
same manner, schools use the
method of tracking which expands the inequality we all speak of. Groups fixed
by socioeconomic status, race, and gender are the ones affected the most. In
many cases disadvantaged kids are lower ranked in placement of academic
achievements because their lagging in a point of their teachings, therefore they’re
not being offered certain teachings and are considered to be low tracked
students. This creates this label of being less bright or less capable of being
a leader. If they were offered assistance in a point in time they would be labeled
to be high ranked students because they’d overcame in their studies. Although
the purpose of tracking in schools is to learn better with those who learn at
the same rate it doesn’t mean this way of organization actually works because
it just creates this marginalized cycle in the education system. Students who
are lower ranked are less likely to put in the same effort as students in high
tracks because educators have given them much flexibility and sometimes some
individuals take that flexibility and apply it to other academic practices and
not all curriculums are expected to be treated this way. Educators are also a
factor to consider when it comes to the effects of tracking because the
consequence of academic performance is dependent on the efforts of educators.
Say for instance, Poor
schools don’t attract good teachers, further decreasing academic attendance and
lessen academic performance. A students
potential is associated with the students teachings and quality of education.

In reference to the article Explaining the Origins and Expansion of Mass
Education by Boli, Ramirez and Meyer there are three institutional features which all
modern systems of mass education have. First, mass education shows the
distinctions in class, gender, ethnicity and region. For instance, individuals
of a higher ranking send their children to well off schools and become much
more successful in education compared to others who are underprivileged and
this is because they possess the capital needed to overcome obstacles. Secondly,
mass education creates organization that it has had influence on religious
structures and with the law. Being homogenous and standardized, further creating
norms and beliefs that have value on society. Even more, mass education creates
socialization of the individual as the central social unit, this determines
identity and regardless of being at advantaged or disadvantaged they are expected
to be accountable for them. 

addition to this non-school factor such as poverty,
community, family participation and health and environmental factors also plays
probable role in education attainment. Family and community levels for example
have an influence on academic scores such as standardized tests. Cultural
capital and cultural reproduction are a great illustration. Academic performance
cannot only be placed on the structure of schools, but also social influences
which can help explain this phenomenon. According to Lareau in the article Invisible Inequality: Social Class and Childrearing
in Black Families and White Families middle class families raise their
children in the form as having have this perspective of their children as
being projects needed to be cultivated through time in order to be prepared for
college. Molding the child through a pattern of concerted cultivation. This includes
organizing activities for the child to participate in like physical activities
and music lessons and the goal is to coordinate growth for the child. Even
more, their communication in terms of language and discipline is important so
that the child can promote intellects and logics. In fact, parents organize
times to discuss matters with their children to keep them opened and aware of
reality. Furthermore, Leisure activities have an influence on the childs
development. This includes an organization of activities which motivates the
child and promotes attentiveness like the participation in physical activities
and music lessons. Furthermore, leisure time becomes active and busy for both
the child and the parents. This method is devised and arranged by parents to
further the childs advancements for mainstream society like the ability to set
priorities, shake hands with strangers and becoming a team player.

this, poor families on the other hand use the strategy of accomplishment of
natural growth to raise their children. There is this notion that the child
will thrive naturally at school therefore they don’t take into consideration of
the concerted evolution of children, specifically concerted cultivation. Children’s
feeling and opinions have no importance in their life. Adults stay in one lane
and children stay in theirs. This further develops a sense of distrust, feeling
distant and a sense of restriction. Likewise, children of working class and
poor families leisure time isn’t scheduled and its unorganized. It is either
spent playing outside with neighbors, occupied with television time or even
time spent alone. Time isn’t spent acquiring skillsets and this develops a
sense of distrust, feeling distant and restriction in their institution.

the interaction of both school and non-school factors captures the conditions
of inequality in the education, accounting for the differences in educational
achievement among students. The experience each pupil has in the education
system is dependent on the structure of society and resources available per individual.
As mentioned in the readings, education plays a vital position in determining opportunities
and has the ability to construct ones capital necessary to strive in society. 


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