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  Dr.Alpna Aggrawal*, Madhu Bala**, Anita Moral***

                    The
paper examines the effect of occupation, gender and aggression on emotional
intelligence. In order to pursue the above objective aggression scale and
emotional intelligence scale was used to collect the data. The sample consisted
of 300 subjects selected by stratified randomization from various cities. The
selected subjects were divided into equal sub groups according to occupation.
There were 100 executives (50 male and 50 female),100 educationist (50 male and
50 female) and 100 technocrat ( 50 male and 50 female).The sample of male and
female related  to each occupation
consisted equal numbers of high aggressive and low aggressive subjects. Data
were analyzed by using 3x2x2 ANOVA.Findings of the study revealed that
occupation affect significantly emotional intelligence. Female have better
emotional intelligence than males. Low aggressive occupationists are higher on
emotional intelligence as compared to high aggressive occupationist.

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Key words:-occupation
(Executive, Educationist & Technocrat), Gender, Aggression, Emotional
intelligence.

                        
Emotional intelligence is a combination of competencies .These skills
contributes to person’s ability to manage and monitor his or her own emotions,
to correctly gauge the emotional stage of others and to influence opinions
(Caurdon, 1999., Goleman, 1998a).Yate (1977) found that different jobs require different
levels of emotional intelligence .It is now recognized that emotional
intelligence plays an important role in many areas of life, including work.
Rohini, Einstein (2002), Agut, Grau & Peiro (2003), investigated executive,
managers and teachers and found that each job required a different level of
competency in dealing with others. In a study Schutte et al. (1998); Mehrabian
(2000) and Davis et al. (200o) found that significant gender difference
appeared among most of the predictor variables, including the traits
forgiveness, emotional empathy, emotional intelligence and degree of macho. As
expected, the degree of anger and jealousy did not differ by gender. Anderson
and Anderson (2006) found that anger management increases the level of
emotional intelligence .In his studies he found that a client used the
assertive communication, rather than passive-aggressive or aggressive
communication and was able to see constructive change in his relationship with
others. As well some changes were also noticed in self esteem.

               *Lecturer,
Deparment of Psychology, C.C.S.U.Campus, Meerut.                                                            **Lecturer,
Deparment of Psychology,R.B.S.College,Agra                                                                        
  ***Lecturer, Deparment of
Psychology,S.V.S.College,Aligarh.

                                                             

                                                                        
    Method

Purpose:-To study
the effect of occupation, gender, and aggression on emotional intelligence.

1.      
There will be no significant effect of
occupation on emotional intelligence.

2.      
There will be no significant effect of gender on
emotional intelligence.  

3.      
There will be no significant effect of
aggression on emotional intelligence.

4.      
There will be no significant interaction effect
between occupation and gender on emotional intelligence.

5.      
There will be no significant interaction effect
between occupation and aggression on emotional intelligence.

6.      
There will be no significant interaction effect
between gender and aggression on emotional intelligence.

7.      
There will be no significant interaction effect
among occupation, gender and aggression on emotional intelligence.

Sample:-Initially
aggression scale was administered on 600 subjects. Out of which 300 subjects
were selected for this study. The selected subjects were divided into three
equal sub groups according to occupation .There were 100 executive (50 male and
50 female), 100 educationists (50 male and female) and 100 technocrat (50 male
and 50 female).In each group there were 25 high aggressive and 25 low
aggressive subjects.

Tools:-The
following tests were used in this study. 

1.      
Aggression scale constructed by Prof.
S.N.Rai. 

2.      
Emotional Intelligence scale constructed by
Anukool Hyde, Sanjyot Pathe and Upinder Dhar.

    Above two measures
are reliable and valid measures. Scoring procedure and norms are given in the
manual of the tests.

Statistical
Analysis:-The obtained score data were analyzed by using Mean, 3×2 x2 ANOVA
and Newman keuls test.                 

                                                                       
RESULT

    The obtained data
after tabulation were statistically analyzed with the help of Mean, Analysis of
Variance (ANOVA) and Newman keuls test. The obtained data result are interpreted
and shown in the following tables. ANOVA is shown in table -1; Mean scores are
shown in table -2 and Newman keuls test also shown in table-3.

 

 

 

 

Table-1: Summary of (3x2x2) ANOVA for Emotional Intelligence scores (N=300)

Source
of variance

Ss

df

MS

F

A(occupation)

20551.327

2

10275.6635

69.92**

        B(Gender)

13187.071

1

13187.071

89.73**

C(Aggression)

20254.084

1

20254.084

137.82**

AxB

13082.419

2

6541.2095

44.51**

AxC

4351.286

2

2175.643

14.80**

BxC

8184.962

1

8184.962

55.69**

AxBxC

8955.208

2

4477.604

30.47**

Within
treatment error

42325.68

288

146.964

 

Total

130892.037

299

 

 

**Denotes significant
at 0.01 level of confidence

Table-2: Mean scores Emotional Intelligence

Variables

Levels
of Variables

Mean
Scores

Occupation

Executive

142.76

Educationist

125.03

Technocrat

125.38

Gender

Male

124.43

Female

137.69

Aggression

High
Aggression

122.84

Low
Aggression

138.27

                                                                                         

Table-3: Summary of Newman Keuls comparison test for main effect of
occupation on Emotional Intelligence

Ordered
Mean

Ordered
Mean
 

                 A2
             125.03     

    A3
125.38

      A1
142.76

A2

125.03

 

0.35

17.73**

A3

125.38

 

 

17.38**

**Denotes significant
at 0.01 level of confidence.

                                 

Discussion: – The
purpose of the present research to study the effect of occupation, gender, and
aggression on emotional intelligence. The obtained results are showing very
interesting pattern of the effect of occupation, gender, and aggression on
emotional intelligence. In this study first independent variable   was
occupation is designated as factor “A”, second independent variable was gender
designated as factor “B” and third independent variable was aggression
designated as factor “C”.Factor A  has
three  levels  Executive ,Educationist and
Technocrate,factor B  has two levels  male and female, factor C also has two levels
high aggression and low aggression. A close look of table of ANOVA clearly
reveals that F value of factor A is 69.92 that exceed the critical value at
0.01 levels. This significant F ratio indicates that occupation significantly
affect the emotional intelligence of the subjects .The mean values of emotional
intelligence  scores of Executives is
142.76,Educationist is 125.03 and Technocrat is 125.38.Which reveals the fact
that executives have highest degree of emotional intelligence ,while
educationist has lowest degree of emotional intelligence and technocrats are in
the middle range. Emotional intelligence is the capacity of an individual
defines his/he own emotions, and become sensitive to those, that he/she
perceives from the environment and the circle of people, he/she is interacting
with. It may also be said that emotional intelligence is the use of knowledge
of these emotions to control situations and create plans and decision based on
the perceived emotions .The executives has to take many challenging decisions
and tasks, which enables him/her to believe in his/her own abilities and
approach to tasks and problems. Sometimes he/she is required   to take momentary decisions, while really
help the person to be mature with high emotional intelligence. Secondly
technocrats have scored higher than educationist in terms of emotional
intelligence. The technical field is very close to public dealing. So these
people have the ability to impact and influence people. So they easily   learn the art to influencing people
effectively at the workplace. Educationist is lower than executives and technocrats.
Because educationist have to deal with a small and limited group of students.
Each and every day a teacher will face to same group of students. So, there is
no need to enhance   more emotional
competencies day by day due to certainty of same people for a long time (year
or months). On the basis of these facts, it may be concluded that the higher
position in an organization requires more emotional intelligence.

A close look of the table of ANOVA clearly reveals that F
value for factor B is 89.73 that exceed that critical value at 0.01 level. This
significant F ratio indicates that gender significantly affects the emotional
intelligence. The mean value of emotional intelligence score of male 124.43 and
female is 137.69.Brackett; Mayer and Warner (2004) also support these findings.
They found that women have higher emotional intelligence as compared to men. It
was found that males have low emotional intelligence with the inability to
perceive emotions and facilitate thought, which was associated with negative
outcomes, including use of illegal drugs and alcohol, deviant behavior and poor
relationship with friends. Many research studies have been conducted towards
increase in organizations philosophy towards gender equality, that has come in
the form, that today women are expected to” look like a lady and act like a
man.”These findings lead us to conclude, that women are more capable of
handling the people and recognizing their needs as compared to men.   

A close look of the table of ANOVA clearly reveals that F
value for factor C is 137.82 that exceeds the critical value at 0.01 level.
This significant F ratio indicates that aggression significantly affects the
degree of emotional intelligence. The mean value of emotional intelligence
score of high aggressive subjects is 122.84 and low aggressive subjects are
138.27. Which reveal the fact that low aggressive subjects have better
emotional intelligence as compared to high aggressive subjects .The person who
have high aggression, are often ladled as impulsive ,short tempered, take
momentary decisions, bullying behavior and so forth. At the workplace, anger
has an adverse impact on performance .It makes you ‘reactoholic’, that is,
reacting to other people’s ‘push buttons’; it makes one a powerful reactor
rather than a powerful actor; like you being a television, you hand over its
remote control in other hand. So it may be concluded that low aggressive
occupationist are higher on emotional intelligence as compared to high
aggressive occupationist.

F value for AxB is 44.51 that exceeds the critical value at
0.01.This significant F ratio indicates that emotional intelligence is
significantly affected by an interaction effect of occupation and gender.

F value for AxC is 14.80 that exceeds the critical value at
0.01 level. This significant F ratio indicates that emotional intelligence is significantly
affected by an interaction effect of occupation and aggression.F value for Bxc
is 55.69 that exceeds the critical value at0.01 level. This  significantly affected by an interaction  effect of gender and aggression .F value
for  AxBxC is 30.47 that exceeds  the critical value  of 0.01 level .This significant F ratio  indicates that emotional intelligence  is significantly affected by an interaction
effect of occupation ,gender and aggression.

In the light of the findings it can   be concluded that executive have the highest
degree of emotional intelligence, while educationist has lowest degree of
emotional intelligence and technocrats are in the middle range. The female occupationists
have better emotional intelligence as compared to male occupationist .E
emotional intelligence in low aggressive subjects is greater than that in high
aggressive subjects.

                                                                        References

1.       Agut,S.,Grau,R.,&
Peiro,J.M.(2003).Competence need among 
managers  from Spanish  Hotels and restaurants and  their 
training demands. International
Journal of Hospitality Management, 22(3).281-295.

2.      
 Anderson
and Anderson (2006).Emotional
Intelligence for Casino workers.Retrived July 15, 2006 from
http://www.anderson service .com/Anderson & Anderson news and article .htm.
 

3.      
Brackett,M.A.,Mayer,J.D.,&Warner,R.M(2004).Emotional
Intelligence and its relation to everyday behavior.Personality and Individual Differences,36,(6)1387-1402.

4.      
Caurdon, S. (1999).What Emotional Intelligence.
Is and Is not.Workforce.78, 62.

5.       Davis,
K.E., Ace, A., & Andra, M. (2000).Stalking Perpetrators and Psychological
maltreatment of Partners: Attachment, insecurity, need for control, and breakup
context. Violence and Victims,
15,407-425.

6.      
Einstien, A.J. (2002).Study of Emotion Competence and Reactivity of Teachers.Unupublished
project report (M.phil in Psychology) submitted to university of Madras.

7.      
Goleman, D. (1998a).Working with Emotional Intelligence .New York, NY: Bantam Books.

8.      
Mehrabian, A. (2000).Manual for the Balance Emotional Empathy Scale (BEES).Available
from Albert Mehrabian, 1130.Alta Mesa Road, Monterey, CA93940.

9.      
Rohini (2002) The Emotional Intelligence among middle level executive of government
and private organization. Unpublished M.sc thesis in Psychology Sumitted to
the university Madras.

10.   Schutte,N.S
.,Malouff,J.M.,Hall,L.E.,Hyggerty,D.J.,Cooper,J.T.,Golden,C.J. &
Dornheim,L.(1998).Development  and
validation of a measure of emotional intelligence  Personality
and Individual Differences,25,(2),167-177.

11.  
Yate, M. (1977).Career smarts, Jobs with a future.
New York: Ballantine Books.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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