Douglas stored in tables in a database.
Department of Computing Studies and
Faculty of Commerce
and Business Administration
Harmanjot Singh (300288175)
System Analysis and Design
Instructor : Loveleen Kaur
of an Information System
The system is the
set of related components that generate required results or simply a bunch of
interdependent items that interact regularly to perform a task.
Information systems hardware is the part of an information
system that can be touched. Computers, keyboards, disk drives and flash drives
are all examples of information systems hardware.
The software is
the set of instructions which tells hardware what to do. Unlike hardware, the
software cannot be touched. There
are several categories of software, with the two main categories being
operating-system software, which makes the hardware usable, and application
software, which does something useful.
Data can be
defined as the collection of facts. It is usually stored in tables in a
database. Organizations collect
all kinds of data and use it to make decisions. These decisions can then be
analysed as to their effectiveness and the organization can be improved.
People are individuals
who are either interested (Stakeholders) or involved (employees) in an
information system. People are an essential component to maintain integrity of
The last component of information systems is process. A
process is a series of steps undertaken to achieve a desired outcome or goal.
Mission Critical System
A mission critical system is a system that is
essential to the survival of a business or organization. When a mission
critical system fails or is interrupted, business operations are significantly
A mission-critical system is also known as
mission essential equipment and mission critical application.
For most IT businesses and organizations,
database systems and process control servers are mission critical systems.
Enterprise Computing Systems v/s
Transaction Processing Systems
computing is a buzzword that refers to business-oriented information technology
that is critical to a company’s operations. Enterprise computing encompasses
all the various types of enterprise software, including database management,
relationship management and so on. Enterprise computing is usually seen as a
collection of big business software solutions to common problems such as resource
management and streamlining processes.
A transaction process system (TPS) is an information
processing system for business transactions involving the collection,
modification and retrieval of all transaction data. Characteristics of a TPS
include performance, reliability and consistency. TPS is also known as
transaction processing or real-time processing.
System Development Methods
Structured analysis is a software engineering technique that
uses graphical diagrams to develop and portray system specifications that are
easily understood by users. These diagrams describe the steps that need to
occur and the data required to meet the design function of a particular
software. This type of analysis mainly focuses on logical systems and
functions, and aims to convert business requirements into computer programs and
a popular technical approach for analysing and designing an application,
system, or business by applying object-oriented programming, as well as
using visual modelling throughout the development life cycles to
foster better stakeholder communication and product quality. OOAD in modern
software engineering is best conducted in an iterative and incremental way.
Iteration by iteration, the outputs of OOAD activities, analysis models for OOA
and design models for OOD respectively, will be refined and evolve continuously
driven by key factors like risks and business value.
building and adjusting a series of prototypes as per user requirements.
Generally, Spiral models, consisting of various iterations as per user’s
feedback, are used and feedback from prior steps is incorporated in each
subsequent steps. Hence, it provides more flexibility to developers.
Use of CASE Tools in SDLC
Project Identification and Selection
Diagramming and matrix tools to create and structure
Project Initiation and Planning
Repository and documentation generators to develop project
Diagramming to create process, logic, and data models.
Logical and Physical Design
Form and report generators to prototype
designs; analysis and documentation generators to define specifications.
Code generators and analysis, form and report
generators to develop system; documentation generators to develop system and
All tools are used.
SWOT analysis is an acronym for strengths, weaknesses, opportunities,
and threats. It is a structured planning method that evaluates those four
elements of an organization, project or business venture.
A SWOT analysis can be carried out for a company, product, place, industry, or
person. It involves specifying the objectives of the business venture or
project and identifying the internal and external factors that are favourable
and unfavourable to achieve that objective.
Strengths: characteristics of the
business or project that give it an advantage over others
Weaknesses: characteristics of the
business that place the business or project at a disadvantage relative to
Opportunities: elements in the
environment that the business or project could exploit to its advantage
Threats: elements in the environment
that could cause trouble for the business or project
SWOT Analysis of a School
Plenty of co-curricular activities.
Enhanced reports of cyber bullying.
Activate a volunteer committee for school related
Lack of internal communication.
Highly trained teachers and staff.
Staff unable to meet with parents.
New programs to help students.
Strong funding and financial backup.
An overabundance of students.
Seek out new investors and funding for programs
High Graduation percentage.
Poor internal communication.
Ask students and parents for feedback.
Cultural difference among students.
Bad reviews online.
Highlight new program developments.
Competition from other schools.
A fishbone diagram, also called a cause
and effect diagram or Ishikawa diagram, is a visualization tool for
categorizing the potential causes of a problem in order to identify its root
A fishbone diagram is useful in
brainstorming sessions to focus conversation. After the group has brainstormed
all the possible causes for a problem, the facilitator helps the group to rate
the potential causes according to their level of importance and diagram a
An example of Fishbone
Bourgeois, Ph.D., Information System for Business and Beyond https://utas.libguides.com/c.php?g=498348&p=3412839
Technopedia https://www.techopedia.com/definition/23583/mission-critical-system https://www.techopedia.com/definition/27854/enterprise-computing
Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Object-oriented_analysis_and_design https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SWOT_analysis
Course Hero, CISA 4306 https://www.coursehero.com/file/p6fg7ovn/7-Describe-how-CASE-is-used-to-support-each-phase-of-the-SDLC-Project/
Pestle Analysis http://pestleanalysis.com/how-to-do-swot-analysis-of-your-school/
Slide Share https://www.slideshare.net/siyara12/late-arrival-of-students-banasthai-vidyapithsanchi-saxena
Tech Target http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/fishbone-diagram
Power Point Presentations, CSE 2200-070