Dietary Reduction Of Post Prandial Hyperglycemia Biology Essay

Purpose: In direction of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes the function of diet is of import. Indian diet contains big sum of sugar & A ; starches that set off unpredictable blood sugar fluctuations, increasing the hazard of diabetic complications. The purpose is study the consequence of Mulberry tea as it is known to contains 1-deoxynojirimycin ( DNJ ) , a powerful glycosidase inhibitor and has been hypothesized to stamp down abnormally high station prandial blood glucose degrees.

Method: The survey is designed in follow-up diabetic patients, 20 diabetics as controls were given apparent tea and 28 patients were given mulberry tea incorporating DNJ to mensurate consequence based on FBS and PPBS.

Fasting blood glucose sample was collected, followed by standard breakfast and one cup of 70ml tea with 1 teaspoon of sugar. The postprandial blood glucose was measured once more at 90minutes in all 48 patients.

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Consequences: Fasting value in control group 178.55A±35.61 and instances 153.50A±48.10. After ingestion of field tea and mulberry tea the post-prandial value was287.20A±56.37 and 210.21A±58.73

severally the significance is t=4.492 ; P & lt ; 0.001** and the consequence size is really big ( 1.31 ) .

Decision: Mulbery tea suppresses station prandial rise of blood glucose degrees.

Introduction

The prevalence of type 2 diabetes and the load of disease caused by it have increased really quickly worldwide.1 This has been fuelled by ageing populations,2 hapless diet,3 and the coincident epidemic of obesity.4 5.The wellness and economic effects of this diabetes epidemic are immense and rising.6 Strong grounds from randomized controlled tests shows that behavioural or pharmacological intercessions can keep better control of type 2 diabetes in up to two tierces of high hazard cases.7 8 9. The World Health Organization predicts that this figure will lift dramatically by the twelvemonth 2035. Harmonizing to WHO in India 31.7 million diabetic patients in the twelvemonth 2010 and the information predicts 79.4 million in 2035 ( 10 ) . Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease of hormone system, and it has been shown that chronic hyperglycaemia is the etiologic factor more relevant of the diabetic complications and promotes biochemical perturbations doing oxidative emphasis and chronic inflammatory procedure.

In direction of type 2 diabetes the function of diet is critical. However, in the south Indian place the right diet and lifestyle picks are hard for many patients because of the big sum of sugars and finely processed saccharides that constitute the diet. A diet loaded with refined saccharides and starches can put off unpredictable blood sugar fluctuations, which can increase the hazard of diabetic complications. In recent old ages, there has been a turning involvement in natural redresss that can assist pull off type 2 diabetes. ( 11 ) One natural ingredient has shown peculiar promise is the mulberry foliage. Mulberry leaves are the nutrient beginning of silkworms and have been used for coevalss in traditional Chinese medical specialty as a “ chilling ” herb to take extra heat from the organic structure. The foliage is besides used in some Indian nutrients.

The mulberry works, ‘Morus Alba ‘ is a ephemeral, aggressive and little to medium sized mulberry tree, which grows to 10-20 m tall. Mulberry contains 1-deoxynojirimycin ( DNJ ) , a powerful glucosidase inhibitor, can be extracted from the mulberry foliage, and has been hypothesized to be good for the suppression of abnormally high blood glucose degrees. ( 12 ) It holds back complex saccharides, starches, malt sugar and saccharose from interrupting down into glucose. As a consequence it prevents the addition of sugar degrees in blood after a repast. Polysaccharide ( amylum, animal starch or the similar ) contained in nutrient is hydrolyzed by I±-amylase in spit and pancreas and converted into oligosaccharide such as malt sugar, isomaltose or the similar, so decomposed to glucose by disaccharide degrading enzyme such as I±-glucosidase or the similar in the little bowel and absorbed. Therefore, I±-amylase and I±-glucosidase perform an of import function as a digestive enzyme for saccharide in the organic structure, mulberry tea may play an of import function in cut downing the postprandial blood glucose degree. Therefore a individual blinded survey has been taken up among type-2 diabetic patients to detect the alteration in blood glucose following ingestion of mulberry tea vs. field tea.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The survey design was to choose follow-up diabetic patients at Sri Jayadeva institute of cardiovascular scientific disciplines and Research, to mensurate both fasting blood glucose followed by everyday criterion breakfast and one cup of 70ml tea with 1 teaspoon of sugar. The postprandial blood glucose was measured in 48 patients after anterior consent and IRB blessing. Mulberry leaf infusion ‘mulbericha viridity ‘ was provided by Karnataka province sericulture research and development institute, Bangalore.

Method: First forenoon sample of fasting blood was collected for glucose appraisal. The patient was instructed to devour standard breakfast ( two ‘idlies’with ‘chatni ‘ ) . The mulberry tea was prepared by adding a teaspoon of ‘mulbericha green ‘ to one cup of hot H2O and add-on of one teaspoon sugar and given to the patient to imbibe. Similarly the control group besides consisted of diabetic patients and were given normal tea. After 90 proceedingss the 2nd blood sample was collected for measuring of postprandial blood glucose. Analysis was carried out on Roche Hitachi 912 analyser. The survey was approved by the Ethical commission of Sri Jayadeva institute of cardiology.

Statistical Methods: Descriptive statistical analysis has been carried out in the present survey. Consequences on uninterrupted measurings are presented on Mean A± SD ( Min-Max ) and consequences on categorical measurings are presented in Number ( % ) . Significance is assessed at 5 % degree of significance, Student t trial ( two tailed, independent ) has been used to happen the significance of survey parametric quantities on uninterrupted graduated table between two groups Inter group analysis ) Student t trial and Chi-square trial to prove the homogeneousness of samples based on parametric quantities on categorical graduated table between two groups. The Statistical package viz. SPSS 15.0, Stata 8.0, MedCalc 9.0.1 and Systat 11.0 were used for the analysis of the informations and Microsoft word and Excel have been used to bring forth graphs, tabular arraies etc.

3. Effect Size

=

No consequence ( N )

vitamin D & lt ; 0.20

Small consequence ( S )

0.20 & lt ; d & lt ; 0.50

Moderate consequence ( M )

0.50 & lt ; d & lt ; 0.80

Large consequence ( L )

0.80 & lt ; d & lt ; 1.20

Very big consequence ( VL )

vitamin D & gt ; 1.20

Consequence

This was a comparative survey with 20 controls and 28 patients with mulberry tea incorporating DNJ and was undertaken to analyze the consequence based on FBS and PPBS.

Table 1: Comparison of age distribution

Age in old ages

Controls

Cases

No

%

No

%

30-40

3

15.0

3

10.7

41-50

4

20.0

11

39.3

51-60

8

40.0

9

32.1

61-70

5

25.0

5

17.9

Entire

20

100.0

28

100.0

Mean A± SD

53.80A±11.15

51.61A±8.59

Samples are age matched with P=0.445

Table 2: Gender distribution

Gender

Controls

Cases

No

%

No

%

Male

10

50.0

16

57.1

Female

10

50.0

12

42.9

Entire

20

100.0

28

100.0

Samples are gender matched with P=0.624

Table 3: Degrees of FBS and PPBS in controls and Cases

Variables

Controls

Cases

Significance

Effect size

FBS

178.55A±35.61

( 129-262 )

153.50A±48.10

( 93-278 )

t=1.972 ; p=0.055+

0.57 ( M )

PPBS

287.20A±56.37

( 159-380 )

210.21A±58.73

( 118-341 )

t=4.492 ; p & lt ; 0.001**

1.31 ( VL )

Discussion

For type-2 diabetic patients, the organic structure ‘s ability to react to the captive sugars and carbohydrates no longer maps decently ; patients experience disconnected blood glucose lifts right after a repast. This status is frequently referred to as a post-meal ( postprandial ) blood sugar spike. The consumption of mulberry infusion with a standard diet significantly reduced the addition in blood glucose observed over the initial 90 min of proving in control and survey group. The blood glucose were markedly reduced by mulberry tea consumption. The mulberry tea induced decrease in blood glucose presumptively reflects the ability of mulberry to suppress enteric invertase ( 13 ) . Brownlee ( 14 ) proposed that coevals of reactive O species is the common tract responsible for diabetes complications, and glucose fluctuations are associated with increased markers of oxidative hurt ( 15 ) . Therefore, decreases in blood glucose fluctuation with mulberry infusion might cut down diabetes complications.

However, degrees in some patients can travel lower than instantly after the spikes because of the organic structure ‘s “ overreaction ” to blood sugar lift, ensuing in blood sugar fluctuations from high to low. These fluctuations are frequently mentioned as the taking cause of diabetic complications. ( 16 ) In order to pull off the disease, the mean patient with type 2 diabetes relies on two to three different prescription medicines, many of which have disturbing side effects, including weight addition.

The drugs such as acarbose and miglitol, that inhibit carbohydrate digestion produce modest decreases in fasting blood glucose ( 17 ) and slow patterned advance of glucose intolerance to overt diabetes ( 18 ) . Use of these drugs has been limited by associated bloating, gas, and diarrhoea ( 19 ) . These or similar symptoms were non observed in our survey. However, converting grounds of lesser side effects will necessitate farther surveies.

Some persons prefer herb tea over pharmaceutical readying, and such people will happen mulberry tea more acceptable and better tolerated than acarbose or miglitol. In add-on, mulberry tea contains compounds such as fagomine, which induces insulin secernment ( 20 ) , and antioxidants that putatively cut down lipid peroxidation ( 21,22,23 ) . ( Mulberry_Study.pdf )

From the point of view of safety, these plant-derived infusions are easy applied to nutrient, drugs and medical specialties, or the similar, hence effectual constituents or the similar of the said plant-derived infusions are now being extensively researched. Many carnal surveies has proven that mulberry foliage infusion is helpful to type 2 diabetics.The mulberry foliage infusion appears to play an of import function in cut downing the hazard factors associated with type 2 diabetes, because it promotes better blood glucose control and weight direction. When fewer saccharides and sugars are absorbed into the blood stream, it is it easier to accomplish a healthier weight.

Alpha-glucosidases are a series of enzymes located on the enteric brush-border. The most of import saccharides in nutrient, such as amylum and saccharose, are hydrolyzed to monosaccharide, such as glucose and fruit sugar, by an [ alpha ] -glucosidase, and so absorbed into the blood, thereby increasing blood glucose value. Normally, these procedures take topographic point in the upper part of the little bowel and greatly increase blood glucose concentration, particularly in diabetic patients. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors can protract the procedures along the full bowel, lengthen the continuance of saccharide soaking up, and flatten the blood glucose concentrations over clip curve ( Bischoff, 1993 ) .

In our survey, mulberry infusion tea is suppose to suppress brush boundary line enzymes alpha glucosidase significantly and it may detain soaking up saccharides that lead to flatten blood glucose concentrations. This may explicate the antidiabetic consequence of Morus Alba, since alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity is involved in the saccharide blockers for detaining the soaking up of glucose from the little bowel. These effects are similar to those for the alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, acarbose. Morus Alba H2O infusion shows competitory type of enzyme suppression.

Decision

Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors ( AGIs ; acarbose, voglibose ) are widely used in the intervention of patients with type 2 diabetes. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors are unwritten antidiabetic drugs. AGIs delay the soaking up of saccharides from the little bowel and therefore hold a heavy consequence on postprandial blood glucose and insulin degrees. The present survey showed on H2O infusion of Morus Alba foliages were tested for alpha glucosidase inhibitory activity.