Water soluble mucilage was isolated from the fruits of Cordia dichotoma ( Boraginaceae household ) . The physical Features of the gum such as solubility, swelling index, loss on drying, PH, viscousness and microbiological belongingss were studied. The gum was found take non-toxic when evaluated for acute toxicity in stat mi ( LD50 & A ; gt ; 5 gm/kg organic structure weight P.O ) . The mucilage was evaluated for their granulating and binding belongingss in tablets, utilizing Nimesulide as exemplary drug. The mucilage were used at 4 different concentrations viz. 4,6,8 and 10 % w/w. Wet granulation techniques was used for readying of granules. The prepared granules were evaluated for % mulcts, mean atom size, Bulk denseness and Angle of rest. These belongingss were compared with amylum, which was used as a standard binder at 10 % concentration. The tablets were punched by utilizing a cadmach individual clout machine and were evaluated for weight fluctuation, Hardness, crumbliness and Disintegration clip. The Caesalpinia pulcherrima mucilage was found to possess first-class adhering belongings and could be used as a binder in conventional tablet preparation.
Cardinal WORDS: Cordia dichotoma, mucilage, Binder, tablets.
Binders are agents used to leave cohesive qualities to the powdery stuff during the production of tablets. They impart coherence to the tablet preparation, which ensures that the tablet remains integral after compaction every bit good as bettering the free flowing quality. Mucilages are most normally used adjuvant in pharmaceutical readyings. They possess a assortment of pharmaceutical belongingss, which include binding, disintegrating, suspending, emulsifying and prolonging belongingss. Natural mucilage are preferred over semi-synthetic and man-made stuffs due to their non-toxic, low cost, free handiness, demulcent and non-irritating nature. The present survey trades with the isolation of the gum from the seeds at Caesalpinia pulcherrima and its application as adhering agent in tablet preparation. The binding belongingss of this gum were compared with amylum which was used as a standard binder at 10 % concentration.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The works fruits of Cordia dichotoma were collected from environing country of Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh, India. The gathered works was authenticated by section of Botany, Sri krishnadevaraya University, Andhra Prasesh, India. Nimesulide was obtained as a gift sample from Walkman and Selman labs, Antapur, Andhra Prasesh, India. Micro crystalline cellulose was obtained from Sd Fine chemicals, Mumbai, India. All other stuffs used in the survey were of analytical class.
ISOLATION OF MUCILAGE
3.1 Extraction of mucilage:
Fresh Cordia dichotoma fruits were procured. The seeds do non incorporate any mucilage and were removed prior to extraction. The fruits were sliced, homogenized with five times its weight of H2O, centrifuged at 4000 revolutions per minute for 15 min and the clear, syrupy solution decanted. The mucilage was precipitated with three volumes of ethyl alcohol and washed with more ethanol followed by propanone. The mucilage so obtained was dried under vacuity ( less than 1 Torr at 25 & A ; deg ; C for 12 H ) .
3.2Purification of the Mucilage
General methods of isolation of gums from nutrient were used. The petroleum mucilage ( 1 % ) was homogenized ( Potter homogenizer ) with cold dilute tri chloro acetic acid solution ( 5 % ) . The solution was centrifuged ( 3500 revolutions per minute for 20 min ) , neutralized with Na hydrated oxide by bead wise add-on and so dialyzed for 30 H against distilled H2O. The mucilage was precipitated with ethyl alcohol ( in the measures of three times the volumes ) and washed in turn with ethyl alcohol, propanone and diethyl quintessence.
PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF GUM
The physicochemical belongingss, such as solubility, sloping index, loss on drying, viscousness, pH and microbic load8 ( No. of CFU/gm of gum ) were determined harmonizing to Indian Pharmacopoeial procedure7, Using air dried pulverization of gum. The pH of the mucilage was determined utilizing a digital pH digital metre. The viscousness of 1 % gum solution was determined at 25oC utilizing Ostwalds viscometer after 24 hour of hydration.
Drug-Excipient compatibility surveies
Differential Scanning Calorimetry ( DSC )
DSC analysis was performed utilizing Shimadzu DSC-60, Shimadzu Limited Japan. A 1:1 ratio of drug and excipient was weighed into aluminium melting pot. The sample was analyzed by heating at a scanning rate of 200C over a temperature scope 200-3000 under N environment.
Fourier Transform Infrared ( FTIR ) Spectroscopy
FTIR spectra were recorded on samples prepared in K bromide ( KBr ) disks utilizing a Shimadzu Corporation, ( Tokyo, Japan ) Model-1601 Personal computer. Samples were prepared in KBr discs by agencies of a hydrostatic imperativeness at 6-8 dozenss force per unit area. The scanning scope was 500 to 4000 cm-1.
PREPARATION AND EVALUATION OF GRANULES
All the stuffs were passed through a mesh screen with aperture of 250?m before usage. The tablets were prepared by wet granulation method. The composings of tablets were given in table 1. Diclofenac Na and lactose were exhaustively assorted and the solution of the mucilage of specified concentration was prepared by scattering the mucilage in H2O. The mucilage solutions were used for washing the pulverization mixture, for fixing tablets to measure the binding potency. The wet mass was so passed through screen no. 16 and dried at temperature non transcending 500C in a hot air oven for 30minute. The dried granules were rescreened through a sieve no 20. The same method was followed in the readying of standard preparation ( ST I ) utilizing starch mucilage 10 % w/w concentration as a binder. The granules were evaluated for their atom size, the atom size were estimated by screening method, screens were arranged in a nest with coarsest at the top a sample of 15g of the granules were placed on the top screen. The screen set were fixed and shaken for a sudden period of clip ( 20minutes ) the granule retained on the each screens were weighed. Frequently, the granules were assigned the mesh figure of the screen through which it passed or on which it was retained. It was expressed in footings of arithmetic mean of the two screens
The powdery blend was evaluated for flow belongingss viz. , Angle of rest, loose majority denseness ( LBD ) , tapped majority denseness ( TBD ) , Carr ‘s squeezability index, and hausner ‘s ratio
Table 1: Flow belongingss of dried Cordia dichotoma fruit mucilage
Angle of rest ( 0 )
Loose Bulk Density ( g/ml )
Tapped Bulk Density ( g/ml )
Compressibility index ( % )
Hausner ‘s ratio
Number of experiments ( N ) = 3
Table 2: Formula of matrix tablets
Ingredients ( milligram )
Cordia dichotoma fruit mucilage
Micro crystalline cellulose ( Avicel )
Entire weight of tablet
Preparation OF TABLETS
The granules were lubricated with 2 % w/w Mg stearate and talc. The tablets were
compressed by utilizing Cadmach individual clout machine utilizing 6mm unit of ammunition level faced clouts. The tablets of mean weights 220mg were prepared. 9 batches of tablets were prepared by utilizing stray mucilages of five different concentration ( 2 % , 4 % , 6 % 8 % and 10 % ) were used, starch mucilage ( 10 % concentration ) was used as a standard binder for comparing.
Post compaction parametric quantities:
The thickness of the tablets was determined utilizing a thickness prison guard gage ( Mitutoyo, New Delhi, India ) . Five tablets from each batch were used and mean values were calculated.
Hardness indicates the ability of a tablet to defy mechanical dazes while managing. The hardness of the tablets was determined utilizing Monsanto hardness examiner. It is expressed in kg/cm2. Three tablets were indiscriminately picked and analyzed for hardness. The mean and standard divergence values were besides calculated.
The crumbliness of tablets was determined utilizing Roche Friabilator. The friabilator was operated at 25 revolutions per minute for 4 proceedingss or run up to 100 revolutions. The % crumbliness was so calculated by eq.1.
F= Winitial – Wfinal / Winitial X 100 …………… . ( 1 )
F= crumbliness ( % ) , Winitial = initial weight, Wfinal = Final weight
Weight fluctuation trial
To analyze weight fluctuation, 20 tablets of each preparation were weighed utilizing an electronic balance ( Denver APX-100, Arvada, Colorado ) and the trial was performed harmonizing to the official method.
Drug content uniformity
Tablet incorporating 8mg of drug is dissolved in 100ml of 0.1N HCl taken in volumetric flask. The drug is allowed to fade out in the dissolver. The solution was filtered, 1ml of filtrate was taken in 50ml of volumetric flask and diluted up to tag with 0.1N HCl and analysed spectrophotometrically at 284 nanometer. The concentration of Domperidone in mg/ml was obtained by utilizing standard standardization curve of the drug. Claimed drug content was 10mg per tablet. Drug content surveies were carried out in triplicate for each preparation batch.
In-vitro decomposition clip
The procedure of dislocation of a tablet into smaller atom is called as decomposition. The in-vitro decomposition clip of a tablet was determined utilizing decomposition trial setup as per I.P. specifications. Place one tablet in each of the 6 tubings of the basket. Add a phonograph record to each tubing and run the setup utilizing pH 6.8 ( simulated saliva fluid ) maintained at 37±20C as the submergence liquid. The assembly should be raised and lowered between 30 rhythms per minute in the pH 6.8 maintained at 37±20C. The clip in seconds taken for complete decomposition of the tablet with no tangible mass staying in the setup was measured and recorded.
In-vitro disintegration surveies
In vitro release surveies were carried out utilizing tablet disintegration trial setup USP XXIII. The undermentioned process was employed throughout the survey to find the in-vitro disintegration rate for all the preparations. The parametric quantities in-vitro disintegration surveies were tabulated in table 5.
Accelerated Stability surveies:
The promising preparations ( F4 and F5 ) were tested stableness for a period of 3 months at accelerated conditions of a temperature 400C and a comparative humidness of 75 % RH, for their drug content12.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:
Infrared Spectrum of Nimesulide Pure drug, Infrared Spectrum of Cordia dichotoma fruit mucilage, Infrared Spectrum of Nimesulide with Cordia dichotoma fruit mucilage, shows the formation of matrix stuff without any negative interactions which were represented in Fig. 1, 2 and 3 severally.
The Cordia dichotoma fruit mucilage was xanthous in coloring material, soluble in H2O and signifiers hage syrupy solution. The % output was 23 ±2.173 g /kg with mean atom size of 165.15±10.265µm and the weight loss on drying was found to be 4.20±2.573. The Swelling ratio was found to be 45±3.841, pH was found to be 7.0±0.56 and the Charring was found to be 220±4.520 C. The denseness of 0.5 % w/v liquid was found to be 0.997±0.055 and microbic count of bacteriums was 5cfu/g and Fungi were 2 cfu/g. The Angle of rest of Cordia dichotoma fruit mucilage were found to be 27.96±1.6840, Loose Bulk denseness was found to be 0.604±0.018 g/cm3, Tapped majority denseness was found to be 0.866±0.021 g/cm3, Compressibility Index was found to be 0.302±0.023 % , Hausner ‘s ratio was found to be 1.434±0.047. All the above were conducted in 5 tests. The thickness of formulated tablets was unvarying and ranged from 5.8±0.41 to 6.2±0.15, the hardness of formulated tablets were more than 5 kg/cm2 bespeaking good mechanical strength and the loss on crumbliness was less than 1 % which indicates the formulated tablets can defy the physical emphasis while transit.
In-vitro drug release profile of Nimesulide from formulated matrix tablets were studied utilizing zero order, first order, Higuchi, Korsmeyer Peppa ‘s and Hixson-Crowell ‘s Models which were shown in Fig. 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 severally. The rate of release was faster in F-1 and slower in F-5. The kinetic secret plans were absolutely suiting to the formulated Cordia dichotoma fruit mucilage- Nimesulide matrix tablets. This consequence shown that as the proportion of Cordia dichotoma fruit mucilage increased, the overall clip of release of the drug from the matrix tablet was besides increased. Drug releases from matrix tablets were by drug disintegration, drug diffusion or a combination of both.
The present survey revealed that Cordia dichotoma fruit mucilage appears to be suited for usage as a release retardent in the industry of drawn-out release matrix tablets because of its good puffiness, good flow and suitableness for matrix preparations. From the disintegration survey, it was concluded that dried Cordia dichotoma fruit mucilage can be used as an excipient for doing drawn-out release matrix tablets.
The writers are grateful to Walkman and Selman Pharmaceuticals, Anantapur, India for supplying the pure drug sample.
Table 1: Physicochemical word picture of Cordia dichotoma fruit mucilage
Slowly soluble in H2O
green goodss hage syrupy solution
% output ( g /kg )
Ave. atom size
Weight loss on drying
Charring ( 0C )
Density of liquid ( 0.5 % w/v )
Microbial count ( cfu/g )
Bacteria:6 ; Fungi: 3
Angle of rest ( q & A ; deg ; )
Loose Bulk denseness ( g/cm3 )
Tapped majority denseness ( g/cm3 )
Carr ‘s Index
Hausner ‘s ratio
Number of tests ( N ) =5
Figure No. 10: Infra Red Spectrum of Nimesulide
Figure No. 15: Infra Red Spectrum of Formulation